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SC0-411 Hardening the Infrastructure

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SC0-411 exam Dumps Source : Hardening the Infrastructure

Test Code : SC0-411
Test Name : Hardening the Infrastructure
Vendor Name : SCP
Q&A : 574 Real Questions

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SCP Hardening the Infrastructure

Securing your enterprise via personnel training | Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

5 collaboration tools that raise Microsoft office

3 years of Go in construction | Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

For the last 3 years, my microservices in production have been divided into here platforms:

  • Core: Ruby and JRuby with Rails and Sinatra
  • Satellites, scale: Node.js, Clojure and later: Go
  • A “core” toolset would live long. it might additionally move speedy. it might depict the area of the enterprise and the core product solution that offers uncooked cost.

    normally, its performance profile doesn’t in reality introduce any infrastructural concerns. The satellites and “scale” toolset reveals use instances where we bumped into scalability concerns and had to tear aside a chunk of the core, and rebuild it on excellent of a greater performant stack.

    It additionally symbolize a pure infrastructural issue; reminiscent of a push infrastructure, or analytics functions. these things don’t alternate as quickly because the issue domain, and they do should be powerful, quick and reliable.

    I wish to focus on that “scale” toolset and share slightly of my very own journey. Let’s beginning on the end. while migrating from Node to head, the following are the issues I actually have observed to be distinct.


    Node appreciated to crash when dealing with sudden performance, normally because of gigantic use of connections and the overhead in managing them and protecting their materials in check. genuine, this is primarily solved with the aid of relevant potential planning, and utilization of hardening patterns like circuit breaker, and throttling.

    however, the use of these, my Node capabilities looked like pressured concoctions that crashed hard and had a horrible GC profile of minutes per collection (here's early Node days I’m talking about the place you needed to patch V8 to help a larger heap). It stored reminding me V8 become firstly built to be run on the desktop.

    Even in its early days, Go didn’t have any of that, and it become satisfactory. And when it did crash, it recovered crazy quickly, and that i appreciated that property, and made use of it; failing procedures crashed quick.


    around 2011–12, Node become on the apex of efficiency, and Go wasn’t. this is, until Go 1.1 blended up that equation. I first seen it throughout the fabulous TechEm benchmarks:

  • round 1, March 2013 (pre Go 1.1): Go at 13k req/s, Node at 10k req/s. No big deal.
  • round 10 (latest): Go at 380k req/s Node at 225k req/s. round a hundred seventy five% increase in choose of Go, and in the event you evaluate that to Node with express, you get 145k req/s for Node, which is 260% raise in prefer of Go.
  • although these are a in simple terms however a specialized variant of a micro benchmark, believe in regards to the overhead of the web framework (express) superimposed on the host platform (Node). When Go is straddled with a standard internet framework (Gin), it doesn’t react that hysterically and the reduction in performance is in the 1–3% range, Node although had a dramatic response.

    It stands to trace which stack you’d wish to pack infrastructure on. consider about it. is this why a lot of full-on infrastructure initiatives (Docker, Kubernetes, Vagrant etc.) have been constructed on Go (hint: yes)?


    To deploy Node or Ruby, you should deal with dependencies. equipment equivalent to Bundler, rubygems, and npm were created to conquer dependency hell, and supplied us with an ever helpful layer of abstraction, which split our items into two:

  • Product (essence)
  • Product (dependencies)
  • well-nigh we might image our deps, and ship our product. however notice, with Bundler and npm, we image a description of our deps (until we decide to vendor. IMHO, with npm — individuals constantly don’t).

    every installation may have modified the dependency tree of the product, and servers internet hosting these items had to replicate that. For these desirous to solve this problem, they needed to ask these questions:

  • Is that the responsibility of the Configuration administration infra?
  • should still the deployment system or framework take care of dependencies?
  • should you bundle dependencies together with your product?
  • What occurs when your dependencies die? (i.e. pulled off from Rubygems)
  • And their answers would usually be:

  • Configuration administration should take care of the servers. materials are not products.
  • sure. The deployment procedure may still do something about deps.
  • No, bundling dependencies is an anti-pattern. At worst case make our own native cache or proxy.
  • When dependencies die, we are able to use a local cache. Or: dependencies certainly not die.
  • Docker

    Docker seals these questions shut — everything is snapshotted into a picture, and also you deploy that. This gives a layer of abstraction on accurate of the dependencies idea — photo all of the issues.

    but nonetheless, for what’s written here, we’re speaking pre-construction-docker period here (which is, most effective a 12 months and a half ago).


    Even devoid of Docker, Go packs a binary which is self-contained. And the answers to the above questions, are:

  • Go builds its dependencies into the binary, making a self-inclusive deliverable
  • Deployment framework caring about dependencies doesn’t be counted anymore
  • Bundling dependencies doesn’t depend anymore
  • loss of life dependencies doesn’t count number, dependencies reside inside your source tree
  • And even with Docker, we haven't any drama. A 5mb image plus your binary dimension, makes pulling an new photograph and taking off (and failing, when mandatory) crazy quick.

    The shock component

    Go makes transportable Code. Java made that possible too. despite the fact, Go makes for a special form of portability. It doesn’t compile to each platform below the sun (yet), but it surely does build for x86 and ARM.

    constructing for ARM potential constructing for cellular, and Raspberry Pis.

    My tipping element for the usage of Go was once I regarded into Python and C, for constructing my several ideas for home tasks. I needed to examine Python since it looks like that’s what the total RPi community used, and that i needed to analyze C because I discovered that a customary Python app took 27Mb of RAM clean.

    certainly for the primary Raspberry Pi model I had, I didn’t have lots of reminiscence. So, I determined to are trying Go, and i cleared up a day to do this, as a result of I guessed move compilation and ARM were going to be a nightmare and i truly desired to make use of Go (greater yet, I didn’t are looking to use C as dangerous).

    the primary 5 minutes handed and i cross-compiled and developed a hey world Go binary, SCP’d it to the Pi, and it printed a ‘hey world’ and exited. This was Go 1.0 or whatever thing of the form.

    now not making peace with how smooth every thing went — I spent right here 10 minutes making certain, and double-making-bound, that I copied the relevant binary, and it definitely became my very own Go application that was operating.

    I had a day to spare as a result of everything worked perfectly, so I started working on what at last grew to become floor handle.

    Go is set Forgiveness

    Let me tell you a story about forgiveness, and Go code.

    Go is verbose. It lacks generics, it adopts code era as an get away hatch for many issues the core language lacks.

    To each person with journey — code generation is a bad scent, and this is an issue; and it's going to be.

    however, coming from Node.js code bases, with the dreaded callback hell and a very low first-class ingredient for neighborhood packages (early Node days) a Go code base appears like heaven. So we forgive.

    just in case you are beginning to get used to punching out very verbose Go code, you beginning noticing these verbosity considerations you've got omitted; they malicious program you on an everyday basis, and they're in all places. however then, this sort of codebase would continually point out you’re a bit more critical with Go. My guess is that you just’d be on the identical stage the place you want to beginning doing concurrency work.

    You find Go’s channels, its concurrency mannequin, and its nonblocking I/O.

    as soon as again, you be taught to respect it and turn into forgiving. by this time, the systems you’re setting up are complicated (in a good way), and so they want to be general.

    You wish to birth constructing infrastructure for yourself.

    Generics, and absence of language abstractions beginning to hit you, difficult. And as soon as once more, on the same time, you word that your construction environment is quiet. So quiet that it allows you to even give some thought to these things.

    You’re noticing everything you construct is awfully robust, performant, without a distinct effort in your part. moreover, you remember that the remaining commits and fixes you made were distinctly handy as a result of everything turned into super spelled out.

    You accept Go

    At this point, you settle for Go.

    Code technology, its CSP concurrency model, its simplicity, its hyper-focused single-intention tools reminiscent of go-vet, go-fmt, and the likes and make peace with the incontrovertible fact that through the use of Go, you’re building and getting accustomed to a colourful, vivid, device set.

    You develop into forgiving, as a result of unusually, you doubted Go at every crossroad, and it didn’t permit you to down.

    Bastille Linux: Hardening your machines | Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    One may ask "Why is hardening fundamental? My machines don't seem to be prone to be attacked; we're simply a little business (or small non-profit, etc.)" The truth is that under these situations, it is unlikely that your company should be centered for assault. although, most assaults are not the influence of deliberate concentrated on, but rather result from mindless, computerized probing via scripts.

    pretty much, these attacks outcomes from someone (usually now not very refined, technically speakme) setting off an automated application that churns through various cyber web addresses. if your machine just happens to be in that latitude, and is susceptible, it may be attacked and perhaps compromised. Then the nasty company of convalescing starts -- and recuperating is always more work than prevention! for this reason, hardening machines is an important a part of any firm's security plan.

    As you may imagine, hardening a computer as it should be is an in depth and time-drinking manner for a system administrator. or not it's easy to miss out on one or greater critical steps, which can not simplest go away the laptop inclined, however additionally create a false experience of safety concerning the chance profile of a laptop.

    Bastille makes it feasible to tackle the full range of hardening actions whereas keeping in opposition t missing key steps. It additionally makes the technique significantly extra effective. Bastille accomplishes this by means of a GUI-based, interactive technique. (For a screen shot of what Bastille feels like, please see this web page.)

    What areas does Bastille address in hardening a system? here's a partial checklist:

    File PermissionsAccount SecurityBook SecurityInetd SecurityMiscellaneous DaemonsSendmailDNSApachePrintingFTPFirewall

    All of those items may still be available if mandatory, but present possibility for assault if unused. Bastille helps in the manner of figuring out whether the functionality is required, and, if not, configuring it to be made unavailable.

    As a facet observe, once the laptop is configured with Bastille, the laptop may still be probed with vulnerability scanner like Nessus. A scanner will determine if the closing features and available ports are configured appropriately and applied with the relevant utility patches.

    Bastille's goodness isn't limited to at least one machine, youngsters. Configuring multiple machines, even with a tool like Bastille, can nevertheless be time-consuming. also, performing the equal moves repetitively can result in carelessness, so the potential Bastille gives in helping steer clear of overlooking one or extra critical steps will also be negated if a number of machines need to be hardened.

    Bastille addresses this issue, enabling a coverage file to be created on one desktop and utilized to 1 or extra others. The policy file is immediately created through an interactive session, so the technique of making use of it couldn't be more convenient:

    #scp /and so forth/Bastille/config root@anotherhost:/and many others/Bastillessh root@anotherhost "bastille -b"

    obviously, you must replace "anotherhost" with the identify of your target laptop(s). also, Bastille have to be put in on the entire machines you need to auto-configure. Nothing can be less difficult, correct? in spite of the fact that you only have one different computer that you have to configure, using this feature of Bastille is a no brainer.

    Bastille is written in Perl, so extending it's effortless. most of the exact functions (like changing file permissions) can be installation with a simple declarative environment which Bastille will observe as part of its configuration work.

    in case your immediate response is that, while this product is first-rate for hardening machines, you have already got a set of machines put in and are not certain how they may be install, you are going to be happy to understand that an upcoming release of Bastille can have an audit skill in an effort to give you a study out on what your installed infrastructure appears like.

    briefly, Bastille may still be in every sysadmin's or safety guru's bag of hints. It could make your lifestyles lots less complicated.

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    Hardening the Infrastructure

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    Texas school safety bill proposes threat assessment teams, more emergency training | real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    From Staff and Wire Reports

    A sweeping school safety measure that touches on strengthening school security, “hardening” school infrastructure and mental health counseling was unveiled Monday by the chairman of the Texas Senate’s education committee.

    Senate Bill 11, filed by Sen. Larry Taylor, R-Friendswood, touches on a number of proposals Gov. Greg Abbott laid out in his 43-page school safety plan after the May shooting at Santa Fe High School that left 10 dead and 13 wounded.

    Those proposals include beefing up mental health resources in schools by employing mental health professionals in Texas school districts; expanding emergency response training for district employees, including substitute teachers; and establishing threat assessment teams, which would help identify potentially dangerous students and determine the best ways to intervene before they become violent, to serve in Texas schools.

    In Longview’s largest district, officials welcomed the idea of focusing on mental health. Under Taylor’s measure, mental health professionals would be hired for each of the Texas mental health authorities and supplied an office in the nearest education service center.

    Longview ISD Assistant Superintendent for Pupil Services Dennis Williams has been finding training opportunities for counselors, to help students facing bullying or crises at home and securing grants to make that happen.

    “He has been moving forward with this, so if we’re to have this (professional on call) it will be welcome in our district,” district spokeswoman Elizabeth Ross said.

    In the Longview area, Community HealthCore is the mental health authority in Bowie, Cass, Gregg, Harrison, Marion, Panola, Red River, Rusk and Upshur counties. That means the mental health professional will have dozens of school districts to cover.

    “Since we are a large school district, they would definitely have a lot on their plate at this time,” Ross said. “This position would be welcome.”

    The mental health professional would, among other things, hold regular training sessions for campus staff to help them identify and help students in mental distress.

    “Though nearly a year has passed since a shooting at Santa Fe High School took the lives of eight children and two teachers, it is critical that the Legislature keeps the topic of school safety at the forefront of our hearts and our conversations,” Taylor said in a statement. “It is my hope that the passage of this bill will help our schools prevent and prepare for similar events.” Taylor’s written statement said SB 11 would be heard by his committee today.

    Among other things, SB 11 also designates at least $50 per student in a school district to go toward costs to “harden” state schools. That includes the installation of metal detectors, purchasing and maintenance of security cameras and employing peace officers or school marshals.

    “It would give us the resources to be able to help students,” Ross said.

    Taylor’s legislation says the $50 can be spent on barriers, cameras or “other security equipment” that could include metal detectors.

    “At this time, we’re not planning on getting metal detectors,” Ross said of Longview ISD. “Hopefully, that ‘other security equipment’ is open to interpretation. But we’ll see once we see the bill.”

    The measure also establishes Campus Threat Assessment Teams charged with identifying and reporting students who make threats or exhibit threatening behavior.

    “We have a threat assessment team that reports for each campus to keep an eye on our students,” Ross said. “So, if there is a student that is struggling a little, we can provide assistance for that student. ... We’re already doing a lot of that stuff.”

    It’s unclear how much it would cost to implement all of Taylor’s proposals. SB 11 appears to take an unspecified amount from the rainy day fund to cover the costs, though the Senate’s supplemental budget includes $100 million for school safety.

    Other aspects of the governor’s plan, including getting rid of the lock-and-key requirement for school marshals and eliminating the cap on how many marshals each school can have, weren’t explicitly named in Taylor’s bill. Still, other Republican Senate lawmakers have proposed measures addressing these areas of his plan.

    Bills with low numbers in either chamber are reserved for those leaders’ top priorities. And school safety, among a number of other measures, topped Abbott’s priority list that the governor laid out last month during his State of the State address. During his speech, the governor reassured Texans that the Legislature would take steps this year to ensure a tragedy like the one at Santa Fe wouldn’t happen again.

    — This story includes information from staff writer Glenn Evans and The Texas Tribune.

    Warning Issued over Attacks on Internet Infrastructure | real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Key parts of the internet infrastructure face large-scale attacks that threaten the global system of web traffic, the internet's address keeper warned Friday.

    The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) declared after an emergency meeting "an ongoing and significant risk" to key parts of the infrastructure that affects the domains on which websites reside.

    "They are going after the internet infrastructure itself," ICANN chief technology officer David Conrad told AFP.

    "There have been targeted attacks in the past, but nothing like this."

    The attacks could date back to 2017 but have sparked growing concerns from security researchers in recent weeks, which prompted the special meeting of ICANN.

    The malicious activity targets the Domain Name System or DNS which routes traffic to intended online destinations.

    ICANN specialists and others say these attacks have a potential to snoop on data along the way, sneakily send the traffic elsewhere or enable the attackers to impersonate or "spoof" critical websites.

    "There isn't a single tool to address this," Conrad said, as ICANN called for an overall hardening of web defenses.

    US authorities issued a similar warning last month about the DNS attacks.

    "This is roughly equivalent to someone lying to the post office about your address, checking your mail, and then hand delivering it to your mailbox," the US Department of Homeland Security said in a recent cybersecurity alert.

    "Lots of harmful things could be done to you (or the senders) depending on the content of that mail."

    Middle East targets

    So-called "DNSpionage" attacks might date back to at least 2017, according to FireEye senior manager of cyber espionage analysis Ben Read.

    The list of targets included website registrars and internet service providers, particularly in the Middle East.

    "We've seen primarily targeting of email names and passwords," Read said.

    "There is evidence that it is coming out of Iran and being done in support of Iran."

    DNSpionage hackers appeared intent on stealing account credentials, such as email passwords, in Lebanon and the United Arab Emirates, according to Adam Meyers, vice president of intelligence at CrowdStrike cyber security firm.

    Similar attacks took place in Europe and other parts of the Middle East, with targets including governments, intelligence services, police, airlines, and the oil industry, cybersecurity specialists said.

    "You definitely need knowledge of how the internet works and you have to handle a lot of traffic being directed to you," Meyers said of the DNSpionage hackers.

    "With that access, they could temporarily break portions of how the internet works. They chose to intercept and spy on folks."

    The attack itself is technically simple, but its scope and targeting of internet service providers along with large government entities made it "a big deal," according to Meyers.

    Digital signatures

    ICANN is putting out word to website and online traffic handlers to ramp up security or leave users vulnerable to being tricked into trusting the wrong online venues.

    The organization urged broader implementation of DNSSEC technology that adds digital signatures that act as virtual seals of sorts to expose when data moving online has been tampered with.

    DNSSEC can also prevent internet users from being misdirected from intended websites, according to ICANN.

    "It aims to assure that Internet users reach their desired online destination by helping to prevent so-called 'man in the middle' attacks where a user is unknowingly re-directed to a potentially malicious site," ICANN said in the release.

    Part of the challenge to keeping the internet infrastructure safe is that website owners don't always grasp the imperative guarding against wily hackers, according to Conrad.

    "We want to make sure people understand what it means to own a domain name and put it on the internet," Conrad said.

    "Because, all of your customers are only as secure as you are."

    Automated STIG “hardening” finally comes to government IT | real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    For the thousands of hard-working men and women responsible for securing government IT networks to the Defense Information Systems Agency’s mandatory “STIG” standards, the task can be daunting and even somewhat thankless.       

    That is because of the STIGs (Security Technical Implementation Guides) outline hundreds of pages of detailed rules that must be followed to properly secure or “harden” the government computer infrastructure. 

    Given that this work is typically a manual process, it can be extremely tedious and time-consuming for IT personnel.  In fact, it is estimated that the government spends hundreds of millions annually to remain in compliance with the STIG standards. 

    So, as new software tools enter the market that automate the process to near push-button simplicity, the first reaction after “sounds too good to be true,” is considerable relief. 

    By automating the process, a task that once took weeks – or even months – can be completed in a few hours across all endpoints.  Ongoing security updates are also automatic and can be completed in minutes. 

    Explaining the STIGs

    To be fair, there can be a considerable “fog” surrounding the STIGs.

    The STIGs essentially exist because government networks are largely built using commercial operating systems (Windows/Linux), database management systems, web servers, and other network devices.  The STIGs, therefore, define alterations in operating environment settings so these environments can be configured in the most secure manner possible.

    Unfortunately, once an application environment is hardened to the STIG specifications, it can cause installed application to “break,” meaning it won’t install and/or run properly.  This impacts both new and legacy applications installed on the system.

    Why do applications break?  Because they are rarely designed or tested to operate in STIG environments.

    For example, if the STIGs require altering some of the controls of the Windows or Linux operating system the application is built on, the application will break.  If an application requires specific capabilities to operate and the STIGs prohibit or blocks those capabilities, the application will fail to load or operate.  And so on.

    Unfortunately, there are no generic set of STIG “rules” that can be applied to all applications.  Instead, server policies must be manually adjusted on an application by application, server by server basis - which can take many weeks and cost in excess of $10,000 annually, per server instance.  

    “If the same policies and configurations could be implemented on all systems, STIG compliance would be a rather easy exercise,” explains Brian Hajost of SteelCloud and an expert on automated STIG compliance.  “Commercial and government applications respond to security policies differently.  The controls for each system, therefore, have to be uniquely adapted or tuned to each application environment.”

    This painstaking task often falls to system administrators, application administrators or information assurance staff.

    “There are thousands of IT people across government that are asked to address the STIG compliance manually, but many times are not experienced or trained to do so,” says Hajost.  “So, they muddle through, but the initial hardening effort can take weeks or even months.”

    Fortunately, new automated tools are available that automate STIG compliance.  Products such as ConfigOS from SteelCloud harden existing government networks automatically, even across complex and disparate infrastructures with varying security levels. 

    ConfigOS identifies and hardens all controls considered a potential security risk.  As outlined in the STIGs, risks are categorized into three levels (1/2/3) with Category 1 being the most severe and having the highest priority.

    The software then produces a domain-independent comprehensive policy “signature” including user-defined documentation and STIG policy waivers.  In this step alone, weeks, or months of manual work can be completed in an hour.

    The signature and documentation are included in a secure, encrypted signature container that is used to scan endpoints (laptops, desktops, physical/cloud servers) without being installed on any of them.  The time it takes to remediate hundreds of STIG controls on each endpoint is typically under 90 seconds and ConfigOS executes multiple remediations at a time.

    “The government publishes the [STIG] book and we are just automating the tedious work to get the job done,” says Hajost.  

    ConfigOS supports over 6,000 standard STIG controls in a wide range of tested content.  However, the software is also designed to allow users to tailor controls to respond to an application’s requirements. 

    “We could enforce the STIGs to the letter, but that doesn’t work if it means the application will not run,” explains Hajost.  “So ConfigOS creates an operational policy that is as close to the published STIGs as possible, but still allows the application to function as designed,” explains Hajost.

    The signature containers can then be transported across large and small networks, classified environments, labs, disconnected networks, and tactical environments with connected and disconnected endpoints.   No other changes are required to the network, security and no software is installed on any endpoints.

    To date, ConfigOS has been licensed by just about every branch of the Department of Defense, as well as parts of DHS, HHS, and Department of Energy.  The product is also used by large defense contractors and in programs for all branches of the military. 

    Hajost adds that automation is even more important given that STIG compliance is an ongoing process with new security updates introduced periodically

    Keeping Current

    The STIGs, for example, are updated every 90 days to account for newly discovered vulnerabilities as well as changes and updates to by the vendors supplying the major operating environment components. 

    With ConfigOS that means that within two business days after DISA publishes a new version of the STIGs, new tested production content is made available to customers. 

    “When it is a manual task, security updates to existing applications and operating systems are typically delayed by months,” says Hajost.

    The software can also speed implementation of new network applications, servers and appliances by evaluating and hardening each prior to installation.

    Hajost estimates automating the process reduces initial hardening time by 90 [ercent while reducing system security policy maintenance expenses by about 70%. 

    Given the potential cost savings of automating STIG, policy compliance exceeds hundreds of millions of dollars annually, IT personnel struggling to secure government networks manually may find this one task they are happy to automate.

    For more information about ConfigOS from SteelCloud call (703) 674-5500; or visit

    About the author: Jeff Elliott is a Torrance, Calif.-based technical writer.  He has researched and written about industrial technologies and issues for the past 20 years.  

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