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HP2-B54 Large Format Technical Fundamentals

Study Guide Prepared by HP Dumps Experts HP2-B54 Dumps and Real Questions 2019

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HP2-B54 exam Dumps Source : Large Format Technical Fundamentals

Test Code : HP2-B54
Test Name : Large Format Technical Fundamentals
Vendor Name : HP
Q&A : 40 Real Questions

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HP Large Format Technical Fundamentals

RGS quick-Tracks enormous-structure colour Printing services with Two HP PageWide XL 8000 Printers | Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Tuesday, April 26, 2016

Press liberate from the issuing business

RGS ReproGraphic options, a digital imaging and doc administration services business for the design and building trade, put in two HP PageWide XL 8000 Printers in its Las Vegas, Nevada vicinity to extend and raise its massive-layout color printing capabilities. on the grounds that the setting up in January 2016, the enterprise has been in a position to increase the services provided to its purchasers, providing sooner colour printing in addition to amazing presentation pics, whereas expanding efficiency. With the HP PageWide XL 8000 Printers, RGS has been able to a ways exceed the print first-rate of its outdated know-how, whereas streamlining operation.

RGS, a member of the RGS group of agencies, chosen HP tremendous-structure printing technology to deal with all of its big-structure colour printing functions on account of its fine, pace and flexibility. The HP PageWide XL 8000 Printers enable the business to provide business shows, architectural renderings, posters and other colour initiatives on a large media latitude up to forty inches at step forward speeds, while atmosphere a new technical doc pleasant common with crisp strains, fine aspect and clean grayscales. moreover, RGS installed HP DesignJet Z6200 and Z6800 image production Printers to deliver vigour and adaptability for incredible indications, displays and roll-up banners. With more efficient, faster gigantic-structure color printing, RGS can generate new salary streams and excel within the carrier and fine that their customers have come to expect. 

“The RGS production group has in reality put the HP PageWide XL 8000 Printers to the check, and we have been very impressed by means of the combination of excellent and pace,” referred to Billy Hamilton, CEO, RGS community of groups. “earlier than installing the HP PageWide XL 8000 Printers, processing info for colour jobs took hours, and now we are able to process the same info in a fraction of the time. we've been extremely convinced with the results of these items for our market, and our consumers are satisfied, which makes us satisfied.”

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HP Debuts finished Design to Print Portfolio at Autodesk university 2018 | Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

November 13, 2018 08:00 ET | source: HP Inc.

Showcases improvements designed for architectural, engineering, and construction organizations

LAS VEGAS, Nov. 13, 2018 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- today at Autodesk school, HP Inc. introduced new hardware and solutions to help exchange the manner architectural, engineering, and building (AEC) industries design and print. Autodesk clients will now experience faster HP PageWide XL printers1, step forward simplicity with HP options for colossal structure printers, new Z via HP portfolio enhancements, and advances in VR.

the brand new expertise makes its debut within the HP showcase (#A451) of latest printing hardware and solutions designed to be intuitive and effective for Autodesk clients. journey the brand new HP solutions for enormous format Printing, HP PageWide XL printing expertise, the newest HP DesignJet Z9+ PostScript® Printer series printing Z by using HP posters, the HP DesignJet T830 24-in Multifunction Printer, HP new powerful HP ZBook mobiles, and VR “snacking” device.

Reinvents technical print production with faster entry-stage PageWide XL solutionsNow 25 % sooner at the same price1, the upgraded HP PageWide XL 4000 series is probably the most budget friendly solution within the PageWide XL portfolio for commercial enterprise, public sector clients, together with architects and engineers, to obtain quick, and simple printing with a consolidated printing workflow.

The HP PageWide XL 4600 Printer and MFP and HP PageWide XL 4100 Printer and MFP be part of the fastest printer portfolio in the market2 providing speeds up to 15D/A1-size or 10D/A1-size prints per minute, for technical work groups of architects and engineers and copy retail outlets to convey technical files with quick turnaround and low working expenses.3

With more than 7,000 instruments shipped and 5 billion ft² (500 million m2) printed since the HP PageWide XL printer launch in 2015, more clients are discovering the value the market-leading4 HP PageWide XL printers bring to companies worldwide. HP PageWide XL printers do the job of two printers in a single gadget, proposing both monochrome and color prints at breakthrough speeds: the power of 1.

Frictionless large structure printing experienceEight-five p.c of design creators need aid when printing in significant format5. HP is concentrated on supplying seamless print experiences with new options to enable creativity, productiveness, and smarter methods to bridge the actual print with the digital world. Designed to simplify how AEC corporations print, users have access to at least one click on solutions and may basically print each time and anyplace from all instruments.

fundamental and simple print solutions include:

  • HP click: This one-click on desktop printing application offers customers the self assurance to print appropriate the first time. HP click on now enhances the users batch printing adventure with only 1 click on by means of optimizing media usage and fees while reaching error free printing.
  • HP smart App: A mobile app designed to print, scan, and share content now enables users to print content material from the cloud from nearly anyplace with transparency and control.
  • HP Poster App: a straightforward online design device to create and print expert searching posters with the biggest collection of free and premium content material. Now clients have entry with direct and straightforward printing with HP click.
  • "In an international with a 100% digital building vision, paper continues to be essentially the most usual tool used in the field. Small businesses in the AEC business require the correct equipment to bridge physical prints with dynamic digital options, like CAD utility,” said Guayente Sanmartín, accepted supervisor and world Head, HP huge layout Design Printing. “HP’s vision is to merge the better of the physical and digital worlds to have everyone on the equal page."

    HP is participating with customers around the world on delivering a pilot software concentrated on the use of augmented reality technologies to help cut back blunders caused by using out of date plans.

    "The HP Augmented Print solution has gigantic competencies. It bridges the gap between digital and paper. we are excited to work with HP to enrich our customers’ development initiatives,” mentioned Roberto Molinos, CEO and founder, Modelical.

    At Autodesk university, HP will also showcase powerful HP ZBook mobiles and a VR “snacking” tool.

    changing the manner, the realm DesignsThe new Z by using HP portfolio including HP ZBook cellular workstations, HP Z desktops like the mighty HP Z2 Mini or the powerful HP Z8, and the award-profitable HP DreamColor shows, convey the effective productivity, versatility and protection nowadays’s vigor users should do their choicest work.

    The HP ZBook Studio, HP ZBook Studio x360, HP ZBook 15 and HP ZBook 17 have been superior with better processing power, innovative safety aspects and vibrant shows. The efficiency enhance, with six-core Intel® Core™ i9 processors, will permit clients to handle heavier workloads, equivalent to video modifying and 3D rendering. The improved reminiscence choice as much as 32 GB of reminiscence (expandable up to 128 GB reckoning on mannequin) enables users to work sooner with colossal amounts of records. New safety characteristic RAID 1 gives clients mirrored SSD storage, featuring peace of mind by all the time providing returned up for helpful data.

    Tackling VR in New WaysFor architects, product designers, builders and educators, HP printed its Opera Glass proof of thought for “VR snacking.” The HP Labs innovation enables “VR snacking” clients to instantly and simply switching between fundamental display and VR headset whereas seated or standing at a desk. With HP’s ingenious thought, clients can at once enter and exit their VR ambiance, seamlessly combine with a normal workflow and straight away share a VR event with a group.

    Furthering its dedication to providing a finished VR solution, HP is working with Theia Interactive, a depended on developer that creates world-type VR visualizations for structure, manufacturing and past. Theia has wide experience developing architectural walkthroughs, interior design configurators, XR product demonstrations, virtual truth practicing simulators and marketing experiences for manufacturers.


  • The HP PageWide XL 4600 and HP PageWide XL 4100 Printer sequence are scheduled to be purchasable by means of December 1 within the US, Canada, and EMEA. certain country releases will follow.
  • The HP ZBook Studio x360 is obtainable now for a starting price of $1,499.
  • The HP ZBook Studio is accessible now for a beginning price of $1,349.
  • The HP ZBook 15 is purchasable now for a beginning fee of $1,349.
  • The HP ZBook 17 is attainable now for a beginning expense of $1,349.
  • About HPHP Inc. creates expertise that makes life improved for every person, everywhere. via our portfolio of printers, PCs, mobile contraptions, options, and functions, we engineer experiences that amaze. more information about HP Inc. is attainable at

  • the new HP PageWide XL 4600 Printer sequence prints up to fifteen D/A1 size pages per minute in comparison with the old HP PageWide XL 4500 Printer providing 10 A1/D dimension pages per minute.
  • fastest according to option low-quantity LED printers and MFPs (below 7 D/A1 pages/minute) as of November 2018.
  • Operational fees in response to low-quantity LED expertise beneath $20,000 USD in the market as of November 2018. Operational expenses encompass components and repair prices. For checking out standards, see
  • HP PageWide XL printers portfolio are international market leaders in excessive-volume and mid-volume each within the united states and in Canada representing 40% of the share in accordance with IDC market share facts outcomes from August 2018, becoming +9% YoY.
  • From inner market analysis look at conducted on LF printer users – September 2018.
  • in accordance with computer workstations as of June 14, 2017 and vigour in accordance with processor, graphics, reminiscence, and vigour deliver.
  • Pricing and availability subject to trade. Availability may also differ depending on area and nation.
  •       Autodesk and the Autodesk logo are registered emblems or emblems of Autodesk, Inc., and/or its subsidiaries and/or affiliates in the united states of america and/or different countries.

    © 2018 Hewlett-Packard building business LP. The advice contained herein is field to trade devoid of notice. The most effective warranties for HP Inc. items and capabilities are set forth within the categorical warranty statements accompanying such items and features. Nothing herein should still be construed as constituting an additional warranty. HP Inc. shall no longer be liable for technical or editorial blunders or omissions contained herein.

    expertise Shifts and buyer demands drive changes in international big layout Printer Shipments in 2015, in line with IDC | Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    FRAMINGHAM, Mass.--(company WIRE)--in response to new information from the overseas statistics enterprise (IDC) international Quarterly giant structure Printer Tracker, the know-how traits that are shaped through buyer demands are riding combine changes in the international large layout printer (LFP) market. The circulation to colour printing within the technical market and the need for quicker turnaround in the pictures company has reshaped vital segments of the huge structure printer enterprise, yet key applied sciences, comparable to eco-solvent inkjet, have continued to prosper.

    "average, colossal format printer shipments declined by about 2% in 2015 with monochrome toner-based mostly printers and traditional aqueous inkjet printer shipments slipping, but key areas of growth protected eco-solvent, Latex, UV and colour toner printers," noted Tim Greene, research Director, U.S. colossal format Printer Tracker.

    phase Highlights

  • The tremendous structure CAD/Technical printer market phase declined by means of about 1.5% yr over 12 months in 2015, which is partly due to combine alterations with the entry of excessive-velocity single-flow aqueous inkjet printers such as HP's PageWide XL-collection on the inkjet side and KIP's 800-series colour toner contraptions, each of which got here to market in opposition t the end of 2015 and did well within the fourth quarter of 2015.
  • On the tremendous structure pictures side, the low conclusion of the aqueous inkjet market continues to decline with clients moving to electronic communications, thereby decreasing the want for low-conclusion significant layout proofing techniques. Low-end aqueous inkjet printer shipments declined by greater than 15% international. That decline was offset a little with the aid of the boom of low-end UV-curable inkjet pix printers which are meant to change some of the capabilities of pad printing within the promotional portraits market.
  • Shipments of colossal format printers that serve the long lasting pix company grew with the aid of well-nigh 10% global in 2015, led by UV-curable inkjet, Latex, eco-solvent, and dye-sublimation inkjet printers.
  • dealer Highlights

    The properly 5 giant layout printer suppliers global in 2015 had been, so as: HP Inc, Canon (when mixed with Oce), Seiko Epson, Roland DG, and Mimaki.

  • HP became impacted by using the softness in the CAD/Technical market in the course of the 2nd half of the year, where it has greater than 63% share of shipments. however HP changed into in a position to grow its share of complete gigantic structure printer shipments yr over 12 months in 2015 through expanding its share of the pix market.
  • Canon's total huge format printer shipments have been pretty flat in 2015 however the typical market declined so Canon's share of shipments grew very a little bit in 2015 to twenty% normal.
  • Epson maintained its position because the quantity 3 global company to the enormous structure digital printer market however the declines on the low-end aqueous inkjet market acutely impacted Epson, which dominates that segment.
  • Roland DG become the fourth-ranked employer of massive format printers international, however is in fact the appropriate company in the durable pics printer phase, which contains eco-solvent, solvent, dye-sublimation, Latex, and UV-curable inkjet printers. Roland also does specially smartly in the printer-cutter phase.
  • Mimaki recaptured its number 5 position amongst massive structure printer producers, surpassing Ricoh. Mimaki and Ricoh work closely in conjunction with Ricoh distributing some of Mimaki's UV-curable inkjet and Latex inkjet printers.
  • An interactive photograph depicting the global market share of the right 5 big structure printer carriers in 4Q15 and 4Q14 is available here. The chart is supposed for public use in online information articles and social media. instructions on the way to embed this image can be discovered by way of viewing this press release on

      global colossal structure Printer Shipments, Market Share, and 12 months-Over-yr boom, 2015 companies  



    2015 MarketShare




    2014 MarketShare



    1. HP Inc a hundred thirty.6 41.5% 132.four forty one.1% -1.forty% 2. Canon sixty two.7 20.0% 63.6 19.7% -1.30% three. Epson fifty seven.2 18.2% sixty one.7 19.2% -7.30% four. Roland 10.7 3.four% eleven.0 3.4% -2.20% 5. Mimaki 7.9 2.5% 8.0 2.5% -0.ninety% Others forty five.three 14.4% 45.four 14.1% -0.20% total 314.5 a hundred.0% 322.1 one hundred.0% -2.40% supply: IDC global Quarterly huge format Printer Tracker, March 8, 2016  

    other Highlights

  • standard, large structure printer shipments within the EMEA declined by means of 7.8% yr over 12 months in 2015 in the photographs market, and by means of essentially 2% on the CAD/technical aspect.
  • this fall 2015 changed into pretty potent, with shipments increasing by nearly 5% over Q3.
  • Mutoh had a powerful yr worldwide in 2015, becoming its shipments by about 20% in 2015 compared to 2014, aided by using new eco-solvent, dye-sublimation, and UV-curable inkjet printers.
  • Notes:

  • IDC tracks A2-A0+ devices within the LFP market.
  • The LFP market comprises single-feature printers, as well as multifunctional techniques (MFPs).
  • records for all companies are mentioned for calendar durations.
  • About IDC TrackersIDC Tracker items give accurate and well timed market measurement, dealer share, and forecasts for a whole lot of expertise markets from more than one hundred international locations worldwide. the use of proprietary equipment and analysis strategies, IDC's Trackers are up-to-date on a semiannual, quarterly, and month-to-month basis. Tracker effects are brought to customers in user-pleasant excel deliverables and online query tools. The IDC Tracker Charts app allows for clients to view information charts from probably the most fresh IDC Tracker items on their iPhone and iPad. The IDC Tracker Chart app is also attainable for Android telephones and Android capsules.

    About IDCInternational data supplier (IDC) is the premier international issuer of market intelligence, advisory functions, and movements for the suggestions know-how, telecommunications, and purchaser technology markets. With more than 1,one hundred analysts worldwide, IDC offers world, regional, and local talents on technology and trade opportunities and traits in over 110 international locations. IDC's analysis and perception helps IT specialists, company executives, and the investment group to make truth-based mostly know-how selections and to achieve their key business goals. centered in 1964, IDC is a subsidiary of IDG, the world's leading expertise media, research, and hobbies enterprise. To learn greater about IDC, please consult with comply with IDC on Twitter at @IDC.

    All product and company names may be trademarks or registered emblems of their respective holders.

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    InfraCap MLP ETF: An Interview With Jay Hatfield | real questions and Pass4sure dumps

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    Will Wright brings his game design expertise to MasterClass | real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Will Wright is one of the most iconic creators in gaming. He’s responsible for notable games such as SimCity, The Sims, and Spore. He’s also working on a new mobile game, Proxi. And now he’s going to be teaching others his design process.

    Wright is creating videos for MasterClass, a site that hosts online lessons from experts in their field. For example, you can learn comedy from Steve Martin, cooking from Gordon Ramsey, and tennis from Serena Williams. You get access to these videos with a $180 a year subscription.

    That’s an impressive list of celebrities, and Wright rightfully (heh) belongs in their company. He is hosting a total of 20 lessons, each about 10 to 20 minutes long, combining for over 4 hours of teachings.

    We had a chance to talk with Wright about the creation of his classes, what they will cover, and his history in game design.

    GamesBeat: Why get involved with MasterClass?

    Will Wright: Well, the opportunity came up. I’ve given a lot of talks over the years about games and game design, but never really comprehensively, beginning to end, all about game design. It helps me corral my thinking, figuring out — what is the overview? What are the subjects I should cover? What does game design mean to me? What does it encompass? I’ve probably learned more about it than the students will.

    GamesBeat: Are you focusing on any specific kind of game making? Or is the course more broad than that?

    Wright: It’s very broad in terms of — I’m trying to get into the deep fundamentals of it. It’s not so much how to program in Java, that kind of thing. In fact, I’ve always found the technology side to be fairly straightforward. Not quite boring, but straightforward. The interesting part to me has always been, how do you hack the player’s psychology? That’s the part of the system that’s interesting to me, and that’s what a lot of the class focuses on.

    GamesBeat: What was the filming experience like for this?

    Wright: Well, it was very professional. You had at least 50 people running around doing lighting, makeup, this and that and the other. It was very professional. But luckily I actually had a friend of mine, Amy Jo Kim — she was helping focus the discussion with questions and things. She’s a game designer as well. She knows me.

    I think once we actually started filming, the lights went on and those 50 people just disappeared. It was really just Amy and I having these deep discussions about game design.

    The original black-and-white SimCity for Mac.

    Above: The original black-and-white SimCity for Mac.

    Image Credit: Maxis

    GamesBeat: Looking back at your own career, what is  the toughest challenge you faced as a designer?

    Wright: Well, the challenge is always, how do you deconstruct the player’s imagination and figure out how to use that to your advantage? Other formats — Hitchcock was a master of that. He’d turn your imagination against you. The scariest stuff in those movies was the stuff you didn’t see, the stuff you imagined.

    For a game designer, it’s how do you capture somebody’s imagination so they want to come into your world and do things and feel accomplishment? They feel like it’s interesting enough that it’s a place they can be creative. I think that I continually learn about how people think, what motivates them, what interests them. That’s probably always the toughest part.

    GamesBeat: Making games, you can think about it as systems, code, and mechanics, but you seem to approach it more thinking about the player first, their expectations, and working around that. Is that fair to say?

    Wright: Yeah, although there actually is part of the class where I go pretty deep into systems design, why systems — different metaphors. Network systems, system dynamics, and how you pick these mechanical things and try to create emergence from them, so that cool, interesting, surprising things will come out of these.

    GamesBeat: Who do you imagine the class will be for? Is it for budding game designers, people who are maybe in school right now? Or high school students who are thinking about this as a field? What kind of audience do you have in mind?

    Wright: I think it’s pretty broad, but I think it’s more focused toward people who are seriously into this. These might be people who learn a bit of coding. They’ve made a few little games or whatever. They’re starting to understand the mechanical aspects of it. Now there’s this wide open landscape in front of them. What do I do? How do I think about this? For those people who are ready for that step, this is going to give them a way to think about the whole field.

    And even people outside of game design can learn a lot about user psychology for product design, interactive design of any kind. A lot of what I cover is very applicable to that as well.

    GamesBeat: Is there a single project of yours that stands out as being the most difficult to work on in your career?

    Wright: Oh, gosh. I’d say maybe The Sims, because I spent seven years trying to sell that, sell the idea to people. Nobody really got it, so I took a guerrilla team and just programmed it. That was challenging not so much on the programming and development side. It was more, how do I pitch this so people will understand it? Spore was an incredible technical challenge. There were so many technical things to overcome with Spore.

    Above: The Sims.

    Image Credit: Maxis

    GamesBeat: Most of your career was in PC gaming, and right now you’re working on mobile. Has that changed your approach to design at all?

    Wright: Yeah, I think it’s changed the development process quite a bit. You tend to deal with much lighter, smaller code bases that you can iterate on and update. You can actually learn a lot more in development from the players, because you can put something out there, let people use it, and continually have it evolve. It changes the development process a lot. I think the fundamentals of how you engage a player’s imagination are pretty much the same, though.

    GamesBeat: From when you started working on SimCity, compared to making games now, what has changed about your process?

    Wright: My first couple of games I did all by myself. I did art, sound, music, graphics, everything. With Spore we had 135 people working on it. It’s quite a bit different when you’re managing a huge team like that. I think that — back then, also, I felt — in the early days, the primary limitation was technology. I wish I had better graphics. I wish I had more memory. I wish I had a faster processor.

    That all started evaporating about 15 years ago. Now I don’t feel like there are any real meaningful limitations put on me by technology. Pretty much anything I can imagine, we can build.

    GamesBeat: Your games have always been much more systems-based. They’re not necessarily narrative-focus games. Are you giving any attention to the narrative elements of making a game?

    Wright: Actually, there’s a whole section about that. The gist of it is that I think games and story are two sides of the same coin. Somebody who really wants to be a storyteller, there might be other formats that are better for you. The best stories I’ve ever experienced or heard of in games were the players’ stories, the things that uniquely happened to each person, what they did.

    Those are the ones that people really share and are proud of and want to talk about. I’ve really focused on that. How do you create systems where cool player stories emerge from that?

    Above: Will Wright teaching game design.

    Image Credit: MasterClass

    GamesBeat: How did you learn to make games? Was it just an experience thing? Was there somebody who taught you?

    Wright: Back then there was nobody teaching game design, so it was pretty much — fail. [laughs] Learn by failure. I learned a lot from my early games. Some of them I consider kind of noble failures, like SimEarth. I learned some very valuable lessons that helped some of my later games be more successful.

    But also, in the early days, you’d go to the Game Developers Conference and meet other developers. The first GDC I went to, it was attended by I think maybe 80 people? The next one was maybe 300. Everybody knew everybody else. When you’re dealing with that small of a community of people doing something new and creative, you share a lot of ideas back and forth. I learned a lot from other game designers.

    GamesBeat: You mentioned learning from failure. Is trial and error still a big part of game design for you today?

    Wright: Unfortunately, yes. [Laughs] There’s a section about prototyping where we cover that. How you basically fail fast and learn from those failures very quickly, because — the whole time you’re designing something, you’re going down this huge tree of possibilities.

    You’re going to end up on one little branch of that tree, but along the way you’ll hit a lot of forks. You might take the wrong fork and have to back up. To be effective, especially if you’re doing something new and unique — if you’re doing a better version of a first-person shooter you’re not going to experience that nearly as much, but you’re not going to create something quite as creative either.

    Above: Spore lets you make your own creatures.

    Image Credit: Maxis

    GamesBeat: Let’s say you’re a budding game designer. You make a game. How do you know your game is good before releasing it?

    Wright: Well, there are a couple of rules of thumb I’ve found. Even for games that I play, ones that I didn’t make. One of them is that games that are really good, even in an early stage, I find myself playing them in my head, even when I’m away from the machine. I’m playing Civilization or something like that on my computer, but when I’m not playing it, I’m still sitting there thinking about — when I get back to the game I’m going to do this next.

    In my mind I’m imagining what I’m going to do next in the game. And if it gets to a point where it’s in my head and I’m playing it in my spare time away from the computer, that’s a really good indicator. Or when somebody’s watching you play a game and they want to try it. They see what you’re doing and they instantly want to engage and interact with it. There are a lot of indicators like that.

    GamesBeat: I imagine that when you start a project it’s probably easy to be excited about it. You have a lot of passion going in. As a game project goes on for a long time, is it difficult to hold on to that passion in the later stages of development?

    Wright: Yeah, it is. Especially — anything dealing with software, when you think that you’re 80 or 90 percent done, you’re really halfway done. It’s always the case. You’re looking at this piece of code or this game or whatever. It’s almost done! I’m just about finished! But really you’re halfway done. That’s always been my experience. When you get to the point where you thought you were done, you learn a lot, and you have to go back and test things and tune it.

    If you really want it to be good you have to have a lot of perseverance at the end, especially with a large team, which has a lot of other links involved. It’s hard. It’s not something for the faint of heart. [laughs] I think that’s true of almost any design field.

    Above: Take notes.

    Image Credit: MasterClass

    GamesBeat: Does your class go into how to pitch or sell a game at all, or is it more focused on design?

    Wright: Well, I go into, basically, how you sell it during the development process. In other words, first you have to sell it to yourself. Do I really want to do this? Do I like it that much? Do I want to invest my life into it? Then you have to sell it to the team that you’re building. You have to inspire them and get them on the same page and have them as motivated as you are. And then of course you have to sell it to whoever is going to fund it, the executives from your company or whatever.

    A lot of the stages at which you’re pitching this thing — nowadays you don’t even put a game in a box. You download it off the web. But it used to be that it came in a box. As soon as the player sees the box they’re playing the game in their heads, imagining what the game is like. It’s not just how you put ads out to sell it. It’s also how you present the thing in a such a way that somebody sees it and they can instantly start imagining playing it and it’s fun. That imaginary game, what they think it is, is fun to play, and they want to try it.

    GamesBeat: You mentioned leading a team. Are leadership skills important if you want to make a game these days, assuming you’re not going to make it entirely by yourself?

    Wright: Yes, and there are different dimensions to that. The most successful teams I’ve worked in, usually there was a very strong producer. In my case for a number of years it was Lucy Bradshaw. She was very good at the logistical side of managing people, hiring, day-to-day stuff, what you pretty much call management.

    The other side of that is creative vision. A lot of companies would call that a creative director. That’s a different sort of leadership position. But it has its own challenges. At that point you’re leading a creative team, but you’re also interacting with people from what we could call the management side.

    Above: Will Wright at GamesBeat 2013.

    Image Credit: Michael O'Donnell/VentureBeat

    GamesBeat: How much time did it take for you to plan your MasterClass?

    Wright: Several months ago we started talking about it. I was giving them a lot of the material that I give in my talks and a rough idea — they were coming back to me with outline ideas and we iterated back and forth on how we could structure the whole thing into sections and subsections. It was several weeks of figuring out the format of how to present the material and the outline of the material.

    But once you get me on camera and pick a subject, I’ll sit there and talk forever. [laughs] That part was easy. It was really more about the order and the structure of how we would present it.

    GamesBeat: During the class, are you going back to your own games a lot to show them as examples and references?

    Wright: Oh, yeah, definitely. And also just talking about lessons I’ve learned from the games I’ve made. Things that worked and didn’t work, what made me choose to do it this way instead of that way. I use a lot of my own experience, just as an example. Of course, that’s not the only way to do it. It’s just my style.

    GamesBeat: Do you think these videos would be interesting to someone who is more just a fan of you and your games, who’s interested in your process? Even if they don’t intend to get into game creation?

    Wright: Oh, yeah. Quite a bit of it, really, is psychology. Like a quarter of the whole thing is talking about psychology. I think a lot of people would find that interesting, even gamers who aren’t quite realizing what’s going on in their head when they play a game. Again, there are a lot of other creative fields that could benefit from this.

    One of the points I tried to make is that — I think game design is maybe one of the most challenging design fields, because it incorporates almost any other field of design you could imagine. Things like storytelling, architecture, set design, art, sound, music. All these things are part of game design. I can’t think of any other design field that’s quite as broad as game design.

    VR / AR Fundamentals — 2) Audiovisual Spatiality & Immersion | real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Perhaps the biggest surprise after Facebook acquired Oculus in 2014 was how VR video stole the show. Choose your metric — press, festivals and art shows, the popularity of non-interactive mobile VR hardware like Google cardboard and non-interactive cinematic apps like Jaunt and Within — most of the general public’s first VR experience was a VR documentary, a DIY artwork, or a corporate-sponsored short. Gamers were infuriated. Oculus founder Palmer Luckey railed to me about a particular VR camera company “going into a dark tunnel with no end” and was public that “stereoscopic video” is not “3D video.”

    In a sense, Palmer is right. We’ll learn why, and why not, and what the tradeoffs are, and where the future lies, in today’s session.

    Stereoscopic & Stereophonic Displays Fooling two static eyes and two static ears looking at a framed image

    Last week we overviewed audiovisual resolution and fidelity from a single framed source to a single stationary eye and ear. That’s far from how we normally experience image and sound. Now, let’s overview what it takes to fool both eyes and both ears with a stationary head and a framed representation.

    Parallax & Disparity

    The first thing to understand about stereoscopic displays is that we have two eyes, so we see objects in front of us from slightly but significantly different angles. This difference is called parallax. Disparity, particularly binocular disparity, without splitting hairs in this context, means the same thing.

    As they relate to VR and AR, parallax and disparity vary with distance: when we look at things close up, parallax and disparity are more pronounced, and we we look at things far away, they fade to zero. Indeed, when we look out of an airplane from 35,000 feet at the ground, both eyes see exactly the same thing.

    So if you’re making a VR travelogue consisting of far-off mountains, skylines, and helicopter shots, stereoscopy is unnecessary. For practically everything else, stereoscopy is essential, especially for anything “within arm’s reach” (one reason we have two eyes) or for anything intimate, like people close up.

    The most under-appreciated feature of VR and AR headsets is how awesomely good they represent close-up imagery, much better than theater-based stereoscopic (3D) movies. Hollywood has long known that it’s best to keep 3D imagery at or behind the screen and to save imagery in front of the screen for “gotchas” like blood, bats, and broomsticks. The individual displays for each eye in headsets overcome this “big screen close-up 3D” problem. The VR games community knows this, and consequently much of VR game imagery is literally in your face.

    Generating stereoscopic images from 3D computer models is a no-brainer. But, as we’ll soon learn, it’s far from trivial for camera-based VR imagery.

    Interpupillary Distance

    Interpupillary distance, or IPD, is simply the distance between our two eyes. We see IPD on our eyeglasses prescription so the lenses can be properly centered on each eye. IPD varies widely in the general population, from around 50 to 75 mm, with a slight gender difference (62 mm for female and 64 mm for men, on average).

    High-end VR systems like the HTC Vive and Oculus Rift, and AR systems like Microsoft Hololens, have IPD adjustments on their headsets. One reason is to maximize the amount of light going into our eyes. But many in the VR and AR tech communities insist that custom matching IPD is essential for perceptual reasons. Imagine having a VR experience with eyes narrower or wider than yours!

    Does it matter? If so, are the lower-end VR and AR headsets with no IPD adjustment, like Google Daydream and Samsung Gear VR, doing more harm than good? Or are most people flexible and adapt if things are a little off?

    Here’s an interesting data point.

    Children’s exhibit by Edwin Schlossberg for Macomber Farm, 1981

    “I’m Seeing Like a Sheep” is a non-electronic exhibit simply consisting of two short periscopes turned sideways. Looking through the exhibit changes your IPD to that of a sheep, much wider than ours. I’ve done it, and the affect is intense and mesmerizing, and difficult to describe: everything looks “more 3D” or “closer but not bigger.” On the one hand, it’s pretty weird. On the other hand, most peoples’ eyes adapt and enjoy the experience.

    I’m partially of the “let ’em adapt” school for many VR and AR applications, especially to encourage extreme and artful experimentation. At the same time, I acknowledge and respect the work in the labs quantifying such variations. Both are important at this early stage.


    Convergence is the natural movement of our eyes inward to “fuse” near objects. With VR and AR displays, left and right images must be properly aligned for proper convergence.

    Most people can feel when their eyes converge on near targets

    Convergence and accommodation are often referred together as the pillars of stereoscopic imaging.

    So remember in the Prologue, I asserted that the biggest question today regarding AR headsets is whether see-through opacity is doable? Here‘s an alternative scenario.

    You’re wearing AR headsets in your office or living room and a close-up AR-generated image of an apple appears. The headset presents the proper left-right binocular disparity for each eye, and both images are left/right offset for proper convergence. And in the case of Magic Leap, the image of the apple appears focussed at the appropriate distance, perhaps a half meter away.

    So, how much will you care if the apple is a little transparent rather than opaque? The apple appears singular (properly converged) while the background appears double. The apple is in focus and the background is not. Maybe you won’t care. Maybe it’s an attention thing.

    Stereo & Binaural Sound

    Most everyone has heard stereophonic sound, from speakers and earphones, and we easily understand how stereo can make a sound source appear spatial if it sounds louder in one ear than the other.

    It turns out that when a sound source comes from the right, not only does the right ear hear it louder, the right ear also hears it earlier. Our audio processing and brain are extraordinarily sensitive to the microsecond differences. This speed, or “phase difference,” is the definition of binaural sound. Hearing A-B comparisons between stereo-only and binaural sound is mind blowing, particularly, as you may guess, for close-up or “intimate” audio, like someone whispering in your ear.

    It also turns out that, because small speed differences are so perceptible, that inner reflections around the shape of our ears affect where we hear a sound coming from. Like interpupilary distances of our eyes, we have different ear shapes, and different head sizes, shapes, and densities. The sum total of these differences is called the head-related transfer function (HRTF) and is, like IPD, measurable over large populations, albeit more complicated.

    Neumann KU 100 Binaural Dummy Head

    Also like IPD, many insist that HRTF is essential to get right for each person, otherwise the sound will sound “misplaced.” Binaural sound can be synthesized or it can be digitally added to pre-recorded sound. The most common way to achieve binaural sound is to record with binaural mics, little microphones worn in the recordists’ ears. Another way to record binaural sound is with a specially made binaural dummy head, whose physical characteristics match an average head. Professional binaural dummy heads are not cheap, and some experts claim they can hear differences between them.

    Multiscopic & Multiphonic Displays Fooling moving eyes and ears looking at a framed image

    So now we understand how to fool both eyes and ears to believing a representation is indistinguishable from the real scene, but without moving the head and only looking at a non-panoramic, framed image. Freeing the head to move around, even a bit, is even more complicated.


    I polled my class “how many of you have seen a hologram?” Almost everyone raised their hand. Then I described what a real hologram is — a recording of the interference patterns between coherent “reference” light and the same light reflected off of an image — and what it can and cannot do, and asked the class again. The number dropped to two.

    Concert size holograms are not holograms.

    Humans recorded by many cameras pointing at them to make 3D computer models are not holograms.

    “Projected” holograms, where the image appears “in thin air” not in the line-of-sight with the hologram itself, are not holograms.

    Immersive displays that use “holographic lenses” (Microsoft Hololens) or “holographic reflectors” (Intel Vaunt AR glasses) to channel otherwise 2D images are not holograms.

    My intention is not to be the hologram police; bigger battles exist. There are, however, two unique defining features of actual holographic displays that, if they’re missing, it’s fair call it out.

    One is per-pixel focus, meaning, like in the real world, when our eyes fixate on any part of any thing, they accommodate, or focus, on it. When we look at a face close up, the nose is a different distance than the ears, and our eyes will accommodate accordingly.

    The other feature is true multiscopic viewing where all viewpoints of the image can be present and visible at the same time: no need for glasses. Like looking through a window, when we bob our head up and down or left and right, the view changes accordingly. If we mask off all but a tiny spot on the window, we can still see all viewpoints by moving our head. That requires a lot of images for each tiny spot, on the order of thousands of times more than for a single pixel. While stereoscopic displays simply require twice as much data as monoscopic displays, holographic displays require thousands of times more data to display all viewpoints.

    Light Field Lab recently announced a holographic monitor with per pixel accommodation and where all viewpoints are visible. The current prototype is only 4 by 6 inches. The source imagery for this powerful little window can be generated from 3D computer graphics or it can come from a camera, but a pretty badass one like we’ll see below.

    Light Fields

    A light field, like a hologram, has a specific technical definition — a 4D set of rays hitting every point of the surface (u,v) arriving from every direction (theta, phi) — which can allow seeing every viewpoint inside or in between the set. And like holography, “light field” is being used pretty fast and loose. One reason may be that it’s easy to think of it generically, “fields of light,” unaware that it’s actually a science. And to the credit of several of my colleagues, I’m hearing “light fields-like” to acknowledge that there are things like light fields that are not light fields. (Oddly, we almost never hear “hologram-like.”)

    Light fields can be computationally derived from 3D computer models or they can be recorded with cameras, lots of cameras.

    Paul Debevec, from Stanford SCIEN Workshop on Light Field Imaging, 2015

    A light field with a camera array like this can provide every viewpoint within the sphere. The more cameras, the more resolution, but at a cost of data size.

    Volumetric Video

    Volumetric video can best be imagined as pixels in 3D space rather than in 2D space. These 3D pixels are sometimes called Voxels or Point Clouds.

    This is a good moment to introduce Depth Maps, an additional “depth” channel, sometimes called “Z,” to the conventional red, green, and blue image channels, so where each pixel has an RGBZ value. This Z channel can be actively measured, like by using an infrared camera and sensor as in the case of the Microsoft Kinect, or it can be passively computed by matching features and flows using multiple cameras.

    Depth maps, where white is close is black is far

    Depth maps allow RGB pixels to be “splatted” out in the Z dimension to make a 3D “point cloud” model, allowing 3D navigation around it. But there’s a little problem with only one depth map: when moving around, sometimes “nothing,” or occlusions, may be seen.

    Early example of a 3D point cloud made via a depth map derived from a stereo pair of images

    Occlusions can be filled in either by interpolation or by additional data, like from other viewpoints. Both are lively areas in volumetric video today, roughly aligned with Hollywood taking the lots-of-cameras approach and Silicon Valley (and noteworthy, Seattle) taking a computational approach.

    Spatial Sound

    In the context of VR and AR, spatial sound is when sounds seemingly emanate from particular directions or locations. Using head tracking, these sounds can appear to “stay put” as we move our head around. Thus, spatial sound in headsets are significantly different from home stereo and 5.1 sound systems.

    “Ambisonic sound” is a common spatial sound format for VR and AR, adding “full sphere” directionality. Controlling amplitude or loudness of sounds at different angles in the sphere may approximate closeness or proximity of the sound.

    Better is when the ambisonic or spatial sound is also binaural, where sound locations can be additionally represented by phase or delay from one ear to the other. Several binaural ambisonic sound formats are emerging.

    A noteworthy alternative for VR and AR spatial sound is the use of many loudspeakers, for example, one for each sound source, in place of earphones and head tracking (which will happen “automatically” when one turns one’s head). Many loudspeakers may be a good solution for “VR theaters” or location-based venues, where each audience member wears a VR or AR headset but can keep their ears uncovered.

    Panoramic Displays Fooling moving eyes and ears looking all around

    So now we understand how to “look through a virtual window” pretty well. We know about the resolution and fidelity for image and sound, and we know how to fool both eyes and ears even when the head can freely move around. How can we now expand from framed to unframed, and fool the eyes and ears in an immersive panorama?

    The word “panorama” was coined by British painter Robert Barker in 1792 to describe his novel way to paint cylindrical landscapes, and by the mid-1800s, largescale panoramas, housed in dedicated architecture, were a popular form of “being” somewhere else.

    Giant painting, elevated platform, and soft overhead light

    Panoramic photography followed shortly after the birth of photography, and panoramic cinema followed shortly after the birth of cinema. Here we’ll touch upon relevant elements for VR and AR today.

    Monoscopic Panoramas & No-Parallax Points

    The simplest way to make VR or AR panoramas is with a monoscopic, or 2D, representation. There will be no stereoscopic 3D since both eyes see the same thing. Most VR video shot today is with monoscopic panoramic cameras. The single 2D representation can be treated like conventional video in the editing and post-production pipeline, albeit where each video frame is a 360 by 180 degree “equirectangular” image.

    To cover the full panoramic sphere, more than one camera is required: two 180 degree cameras, three 120 degree cameras, up to rigs sometimes containing ten or more cameras. The attraction to many cameras, and big ones, is resolution and fidelity (which is why we spent the entire first session on this).

    But many and big cameras present a problem: in order to have a singular viewpoint, all of the cameras must shoot from the same viewpoint, otherwise there will be discontinuities in the image. This point may be called the no-parallax point (often erroneously called “nodal point”) and the further these point are offset from each other, the more the discontinuities may show, particularly for close-up objects. This is what’s referred to as “stitching error.” The sad truth is that 2D panoramic cameras with parallax offset can result in fundamentally unfixable error, particularly for near-field imagery.

    Some error may be fixable by interpolation and of course everything is fixable painstakingly by hand. Either way, a lucrative new VR sub-industry has developed to fix VR video made with big, offset cameras used for their high resolution and fidelity.

    The VR headset makers are frustrated because the imagery isn’t 3D or even stereoscopic, a key selling point for VR in the first place. Many VR producers shoot monoscopic panoramas because they’ve heard that stereoscopic panoramas are even more problematic. It’s a chicken-egg situation.

    Stereoscopic Panoramas & Head Rotation

    Stereo panoramas are a stereo pair of 2D panoramic images. Many consider them a sweet spot between flat, 2D monoscopic panoramic images and the very large data needed for multiscopic panoramas. They provide stereoscopic 3D and only require twice as much data as monoscopic panoramas. The tech giants know this, as well as a flurry of startups.

    Stereo-panoramic video cameras. All are less than 5 years old.

    Stereo-panoramic video is indeed stereo and panoramic, and to many the resulting imagery looks very much “like being there.” But looking around in VR or AR with stereo-panoramic video is not exactly the same as how our heads move and rotate.

    Stereo-panoramic cameras fall neatly into two categories: paired and unpaired, referring to lens arrangement. Paired cameras, whether one pair (VR 180), two pair(two Ricoh Thetas side-by-side), three and on up can be viewed raw and easily assembled, but with all of the artifacts concentrated on the vertical seams, which can be hand-fixed to some extent. Unpaired cameras require computation to view anything stereo-panoramic. A good rule of thumb is that if the camera was made by someone without a PhD in Computer Science or a lab behind them, it’s most likely a paired camera rig.

    Our eyes are in front of the axis of rotation of our neck. This is a nice evolutionary feature which allows us to gain additional motion parallax (or have parallax with only one eye). Stereo-panoramic video, by virtue of being only two viewpoints, does not add any additional parallax.

    This is a good moment to bring up “3DOF” and “6DOF” in VR and AR systems. “DOF” stands for “degrees of freedom” and 3DOF means only having the 3 “rotational” degrees of freedom: pan, tilt, and roll. 6DOF means having the additional “positional” degrees of freedom: moving left and right, up and down, and in and out (simply: x, y, and z).

    Stereo-panoramas, like mono-panoramas, are fundamentally 3DOF imagery. When the user looks left and right or bobs up and down, there is no additional imagery that can accommodate. Computer-generated 3D models are 6DOF by nature — the virtual camera can be anywhere.

    To complicate matters further, high-end VR and AR headsets have the technology to offer 6DOF “position” tracking, while mobile VR and AR headsets do not and only offer 3DOF tracking.

    So when Palmer Luckey rails that “stereoscopic video” is not “3D video,” he’s referring to the limitations of stereo (and mono) 3DOF VR: it’s not like real head movement.

    Multiscopic Panoramas & Bandwidth

    Holograms, light fields, and volumetric video can be made panoramic in theory. But as by now you may guess, it’s not cheap.

    Last year Intel demonstrated true multiscopic panoramic VR video. The camera rig, made by Hype VR, consisted of 14 high-end video camera systems (the camera bodies alone totaled 70 pounds) spread our around a diameter of around 2 feet.

    The demo is dramatic. People in VR headsets can sway back and forth and up and down, all the while seeing the image update accordingly. The limit of the sway is the 2 foot diameter of the camera rig. Unlike “room-scale VR” using 3D computer models, you can’t walk around beyond what the camera shot. The cost?

    360 degree 6DOF volumetric video with a 2 foot range is currently 3 GB per frame

    That’s 1,000 times the size of professional-grade 4K video, and only to sway around a bit. It may sound excessive, but if you were Intel, wouldn’t this be your future?

    There’s a noteworthy irony here. Remember all of those monoscopic panoramic camera configurations with parallax offset resulting in expensive stitching fixes? It’s precisely that offset that may make these configurations ideal for multiscopic panoramic capture.

    Putting it all Together

    The Holy Grail for audiovisual spatiality and immersion is to forget about video playback, whether it’s 2D, stereoscopic, volumetric, pixels, voxels, frames, or “holograms” and put everything into a 3D computer graphics model. If all of the video can be moved into such a 3D model, looking around and moving around becomes entirely unconstrained.

    Well, it’s not like I’m the first guy with such an enlightened thought.

    Camera-based and image-based modeling has a long rich history, and every year things progress further. The problems are big, and they are beyond “cartoonishness.”

    First, look around wherever you are right now and imagine making a 3D computer model of your environment magically using a camera. You can “sweep” the space to capture all the visual data (be sure to sweep under the table). Systems like this exist, as first popularized by Google’s Project Tango, and are at the core of emerging mobile AR developer’s tools. But what about motion? You can “flash” instead of sweep, using many cameras covering moving objects from many viewpoints. Systems like this also exist, going back to the camera rig used for the “bullet scene” in the Matrix. But for capturing motion in 3D in the real world, or even wherever your reading this right now, you’d need a lot of cameras if you want to minimize occlusions.

    The bigger challenge is turning these “models” into models. Importing camera-based imagery into navigable 3D computer models differs from building 3D computer models from scratch in that no semantic knowledge exists. When you build a chair or a tree or a character from scratch in a computer model, “it” (the computer) “knows” what it is. This semantic knowledge enables us to move the chair or sway the tree or fight the character. This information simply doesn’t exist in the pixels or voxels or rays of video.

    Making audiovisual material spatial and immersive is a first step. We’re getting pretty good at this.

    Moving spatial and immersive audiovisual material into 3D computer models is a multi-faceted challenge happening now. One facet is how Hollywood and cinema have different approaches and needs than Silicon Valley and games.

    Adding semantic understanding about the spatial and immersive audiovisual material in 3D computer models is perhaps today’s greatest challenge in this arena. The solution lies in crowdsourcing, big data, and deep learning.

    Expect surprises some time soon.

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