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102-400 LPI Level 1 Exam 102, Junior Level Linux Certification, Part 2 of 2

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102-400 exam Dumps Source : LPI Level 1 Exam 102, Junior Level Linux Certification, Part 2 of 2

Test Code : 102-400
Test Name : LPI Level 1 Exam 102, Junior Level Linux Certification, Part 2 of 2
Vendor Name : LPI
Q&A : 120 Real Questions

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    LPI Level 1 Exam 102, Junior Level Linux Certification, Part 2 of 2

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    Community efforts in Linux certification | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    June 5, 2000Web posted at: 10:19 a.m. EDT (1419 GMT)

    (IDG) -- I should be studying. I should be in a classroom. I should be cramming for my exam. But I'm not. I'm sitting here at my computer dutifully writing this column, even though I know that at about this time next week, I'll be in Austin, Texas, taking the first of two Level 1 LPI Linux certification exams. I know I'm not going to do very well, but that's OK; I'm not obligated to humiliate myself by revealing my score. After taking both exams for Level 1, however, I should have a pretty good idea of what is considered an acceptable level of knowledge for a junior Linux system administrator.

    Linux certification is an idea that has been around for a long time and is now coming to fruition. There are two primary entities working to provide Linux professionals with credentials. The first is SAIR; the second is LPI, the Linux Professional Institute. If you are not familiar with Linux certification, I recommend Eileen Cohen's excellent analysis, which appeared in LinuxWorld earlier this year. The URL is given below in the Resources section of this article.

    The goals of the two primary groups are very similar. The primary difference is that SAIR is a for-profit corporation offering both testing and training, while LPI is a nonprofit organization focusing exclusively on testing. Wave Technologies, which recently purchased SAIR, is in fact a major provider of IT training.

    Both LPI and SAIR seek to advance Linux in the enterprise. Each has impeccable credentials of its own. Some of the brightest lights in the open source world serve on SAIR's advisory board. LPI is simply a part of the Linux community doing something that needs to be done.

    Evan Leibovitch, who has been involved with Unix and Linux for a long time, and who has written about Linux for the past five years, is one of the founders of the LPI. Evan asked recently if I would like to take the first-level LPI exam, currently in beta. I hesitated a day before accepting the offer, for no reason other than fear of failing.

    At first I hoped that I would be able to take the test online, but the exams are only given in controlled environments, so that people don't make it an open book test or have proxies take the exam for them. But VUE (Virtual University Enterprises), which administers the certification exams for LPI, has three locations in the Austin area, so finding a nearby testing center was not a problem. I'm booked for 10:30 a.m. on May 31. Think good thoughts for me.

    Community efforts

    I'm always amazed and a little in awe of what the people in the Linux community take it upon themselves to do. LPI is no exception. Now about 1,000 strong, and less than two years old, it is finishing beta testing on its Level 1 certification program as I type. You should be able to earn your LPI Level 1 certification as early as this summer. Work is already underway on the Level 2 exams, and a third level, for senior administrators, will follow.

    Evan has been involved with Unix for many years, and with Linux since 1995. As a journalist, he has written about both, and he currently writes a weekly column on Linux for ZDNet. He told me that he can still remember when he first got hooked by Linux. It was at the November 1995 Unix Expo in New York, following Novell's announcement that it was selling its Unix interests to SCO. Evan said, "I spent most of the rest of the day at the booths of Caldera and Red Hat, which had very tiny booths at that show. And basically that was the start of my getting hooked."

    The current LPI organization is blended from two separate mailing lists and a third Linux community certification project, Digital Metrics. Evan was not satisfied with simply writing about Linux and became an active member of the community. He helped to found CLUE, the Canadian Linux Users Exchange, and it was from CLUE's general mailing list that the first roots of the LPI appeared.

    Evan said that someone on the list asked what Linux needed to make it into the mainstream. The answer that came up most often was certification, and soon the topic warranted a list of its own. Among the early participants on the list was Dr. Tobin Maginnis, founder and president of SAIR.

    In 1998, Dan York wrote an article about certification in the Linux Gazette, and it generated enough interest that a mailing list formed around it as well. Not long afterwards, one of Linux's roving ambassadors, Jon "maddog" Hall, introduced Evan and Dan. The result was a merger of the lists and the formation of LPI.

    LPI has made great strides since its formation a year and a half ago. For one thing, members have rethought how LPI would handle the problem of testing for distribution-specific knowledge. Originally, LPI planned to offer two tests, one general and one distribution specific. Candidates would have all had to take the common exam, and then pick the distribution for which they wanted to be tested in part two.

    But as LPI members looked more closely at the feedback received from the community about the types of things that a junior, intermediate, and advanced Linux admin should know, they discovered that the places where the distributions were different -- primarily their installation and selection of GUI -- weren't areas that needed to be tested that deeply.

    Instead, the people at LPI have designed one section of the second exam to deal with differences between dpkg and RPM package management. Evan said, "It was not reasonable to have an exam that would cover basic admin tasks that didn't deal with package management." But he added that if you know only dpkg and not RPM, or vice versa, you will be able to pass.

    If I'm not totally humiliated by the exam, I'll take the second part as well and provide as many details about it as I'm allowed. I can't report on any specific questions, of course, but I'll cover topics, toughness, and the test environment.

    Looking ahead

    Looking towards the future, LPI plans to have the second level of testing, for the intermediate Linux system administrator, available in less than a year. No timetable has been set for the third-level test, which will be released sometime after the second. Evan also told me that LPI is working closely with the Linux Standard Base (LSB), so that when LSB finalizes its specification, it becomes the foundation for the LPI testing.

    Will SAIR and LPI ever merge? I don't believe it would be a bad thing if they did, but I personally don't see how it can happen. A founding principle of LPI was the separation of training and testing, and SAIR is owned by a training firm. So in certification, just like so many other aspects of Linux and the open source community, we are blessed with choice.

    My take on all of this is that folks like Evan and Dan and all the others who have contributed time, money, ideas, or effort to LPI are doing all the rest of the Linux community a very great service. The enterprise is eager not only for Linux itself, but for qualified professionals to administer it. The certification of a pool of Linux professionals can only help to speed its deployment.

    RELATED STORIES:

    Linux struggles to get beuond the WebJune 2, 2000Troubleshooting the Linux wayMay 17, 2000Two Linux standards groups combine into oneMay 10, 2000Security firm warns of Red Hat Piranha 'back door'April 27, 2000Linux livin' large on mainframeApril 5, 2000

    RELATED IDG.net STORIES:

    High demand for initial vendor-neutral Linux certification tests(Linuxworld)Simply useful: Spare, powerful desktops for Linux(Linuxworld)New tools on horizon boost Linux appeal(Computerworld New Zealand)Troubleshooting the Linux way(Linuxworld)Embedded Linux basics(Linuxworld)Two Linux standards groups combine into one(Computerworld)Open source smugglers(Computerworld)How the Linux community is trying to avoid Unix's mistakes(The Industry Standard)

    RELATED SITES:

    LPI's homepageVUE testing centersWave TechnologiesCanadian Linux Users Exchange

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    Microsoft Wins at CAFC, 25% Reasonable Royalty Rule Dies | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Earlier today Uniloc USA, Inc. won a partial victory today in an appeal to the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit in their case against Microsoft.  See Uniloc USA, Inc. v. Microsoft Corp. Truth be told, while the Federal Circuit ruled that Microsoft did infringe and the patent claim in question (claim 19 of U.S. Patent No. 5,490,216) was valid, it was Microsoft who was the big winner here.  The damages awarded by the jury to Uniloc were $388 million, which was set aside by the district court, a ruling that the Federal Circuit affirmed.  The Federal Circuit also agreed there was no willful infringement.  So while Uniloc has won at least something from Microsoft as a result of its infringement of a valid patent claim, it seems like it will be far less than the $388 million, particularly given the Federal Circuit threw out the 25 percent rule and said the entire market value rule was not applicable in this case.

    The Federal Circuit, per Judge Linn (with Chief Judge Rader and Judge Moore also on the panel), ruled that the jury’s verdict on infringement of  the ‘216 patent was supported by substantial evidence, and thus reversed the district court’s grant of JMOL of non-infringement.   However, the Federal Circuit ruled that the jury’s verdict on willfulness was not supported by substantial evidence, and thus affirmed the district court’s grant of JMOL, which ruled there was not willful infringement.  The Federal Circuit also found that the jury’s damages award was fundamentally tainted because of the use of a legally inadequate methodology.  Finally, because the district court did not abuse its discretion in determining that the jury verdict of no invalidity of the ’216 patent was supported by substantial evidence, the Federal Circuit affirmed the district court’s denial of Microsoft’s motion for JMOL of invalidity.  Thus, according to the Federal Circuit, the patent claims were valid and infringed, but a new trial is required on damages.

    Uniloc’s ’216 patent is directed to a software registration system to deter copying of software.  The system allows the software to run without restrictions (in “use mode”) only if the system determines that the software installation is legitimate. The only claim asserted by Uniloc against Microsoft was independent claim 19, which reads:

    19. A remote registration station incorporating  remote  licensee unique ID generat ing means, said station forming part of a registration system for licensing execution of digital data in a use mode, said digital data executable on a platform, said system including local licensee unique ID generating means, said system further including mode switching means operable on said platform which permits use of said digital data in said use mode on said platform only if a licensee unique ID generated by said local licensee unique ID generating means has matched a licensee unique ID generated by said remote  licensee unique ID generating means; and wherein said remote  licensee unique ID generating means comprises software executed on a platform which includes the algorithm utilized by said local  licensee unique ID generating means to produce said licensee unique ID.

    The accused product is Microsoft’s Product Activation feature that acts as a gatekeeper to Microsoft’s Word XP, Word 2003, and Windows XP software programs.  Upon receipt of Microsoft’s retail  software program, the user must enter a 25-character alphanumeric product key contained within the packaging of Microsoft’s retail products.  If the Key is valid, the user is asked to agree to the End User License Agreement (“EULA”), by which the licensor-licensee relationship is initiated.

    With respect to infringement, Microsoft argued that because there was no dispute about how the accused products work, infringement should be reviewed de novo.  The Federal Circuit declined this invitation to re-write the law and supplant the jury’s determination for its own.  The Federal Circuit summarized by explaining that the claim construction itself was not contested, but rather that the application of that claim construction to the accused device was contested.  As a result, the Federal Circuit saw no reason to depart from the traditional rule for reviewing jury verdicts.  Infringement being a question of fact the determination of the jury was reviewed for substantial evidence.

    In reviewing the infringement aspects of the Federal Circuit decision there is much one would expect to find; namely the parties arguing back and forth about what meant what and whether there was any evidence to support the conclusions the jury reached.  On peculiar aspect of this back and forth that bears some note it that according the the Federal Circuit the district court inappropriately rejecting certain testimony as “incomplete, oversimplified and frankly inappropriate…”   The Federal Circuit noted that First Circuit law, which is the prevailing view among the circuits, is not to allow district court judges in a jury trial to evaluate the credibility of witnesses, resolve conflicts in testimony, or evaluate the weight of the evidence.  The role of the district court under Daubert is to exercise a “gatekeeper” function to ensure scientific testimony is relevant and reliable.

    There were a couple things in particular that seemed to irk the Federal Circuit regarding the district court characterizing the expert’s testimony.  First, the district court criticized the use of the analogy of a digest to a “reader’s digest,” but the Federal Circuit pointed out that this wasn’t improper because Microsoft did not object at trial and has itself used the same analogy.  Second, the district court discounted the expert’s testimony because it was viewed by the court as  a simplification of the functioning of one of the two algorithms in play, but neither the district court nor Microsoft ever explained why it was oversimplified or even inaccurate.

    With respect to willfulness of the infringement on the part of Microsoft, the district court concluded that no reasonable jury could have found that Microsoft’s conduct fell under either Seagate prong.  Under Seagate, in order to establish willful infringement, a patentee must show by clear and convincing evidence that the infringer acted despite an objectively high likelihood that its actions constituted infringement of a valid patent. In ruling the Federal Circuit determined that Uniloc failed to meet the threshold objective prong of Seagate and agreed with the district court.  More specifically, the Federal Circuit explained that Uniloc did not presented any evidence at trial or on appeal showing why Microsoft could not have reasonably believed it was engaging in non-infringing activities.  Thus, in the absence of evidence relating the knowledge and belief on the part of Microsoft, there could be no supportable finding of willful infringement on the part of Microsoft.

    With respect to damages, the jury awarded Uniloc $388 million, based on the testimony of Uniloc’s expert, Dr. Gemini, who opined that damages should be $564,946,803.  Gemini based his opinion on a hypothetical negotiation between Uniloc and Microsoft, relying on the  Georgia-Pacific factors.  The damages appeal presented three specific issues for the Federal Circuit to consider; namely: (1) the propriety of using the 25 percent rule; (2) application of the entire market value rule as a “check”; and (3) excessiveness  of damages.  Notwithstanding, because the Federal Circuit affirmed the district court’s conditional grant of a new trial on damages, the last issue was not reached.

    The 25 percent rule of thumb is a tool that has been used to approximate the reasonable royalty rate that the manufacturer of a patented product would be willing to offer to pay to the patentee during a hypothetical negotiation.  The Court explained that the rule has its supporters and its critics, and observed that the rule itself has previously never been squarely at issue; the Federal Circuit only passively tolerating its use where its acceptability has not been the focus of the case.  As one read the “tolerates” language of the panel it wasn’t hard to see what was about to happen, which was the uncerimonious dismissal of the 25 percent rule.

    After discussing Daubert and the Supreme Courts admonition that damages must be tied to the facts of a case, the Court ruled:

    This court now holds as a matter of Federal Circuit law that the 25 percent rule of thumb is a fundamentally flawed tool for determining a baseline royalty rate in a hypothetical negotiation.  Evidence relying on the 25 percent rule of thumb is thus inadmissible under Daubert and the Federal Rules of Evidence, because it fails to tie a reasonable royalty base to the facts of the case at issue.

    The panel went on to say:

    It is of no moment that the 25 percent rule of thumb is offered merely as a starting point to which the Georgia-Pacific factors are then applied to bring the rate up or down.  Beginning from a fundamentally flawed premise and adjusting it based on legitimate considerations specific to the facts of the case nevertheless results in a fundamentally flawed conclusion.

    At least for now, the 25 percent rule is dead!  But what about the entire market value rule?

    The entire market value rule allows a patentee to assess damages based on the entire market value of the accused product only where the patented feature creates the basis for customer demand or substantially creates the value of the component parts.  In this case the patentee’s expert relied up a figure of $19 billion for the entire market, which they claimed encompassed the entire market value of Office and Windows.  The district court stated, and the Federal Circuit agreed, that customers do not buy Office of Windows because of a product activation feature that protects against unauthorized copies, and as such the entire market value of Office and Windows was irrelevant and tainted the jury’s award.

    The Federal Circuit explained:

    The Supreme Court and this court’s precedents do not allow consideration of the entire market value of accused products for minor patent improvements simply by asserting a low enough royalty rate… This case provides a good  example of the danger of admitting consideration of the entire market value of the accused where the patented component does not create the basis for customer demand.

    So the entire market value rule continues, it just wasn’t proper for this case.

    Gene Quinn

    Gene Quinn is a Patent Attorney and Editor and President & CEO ofIPWatchdog, Inc.. Gene founded IPWatchdog.com in 1999. Gene is also a principal lecturer in the PLI Patent Bar Review Course and Of Counsel to the law firm of Berenato & White, LLC. Gene’s specialty is in the area of strategic patent consulting, patent application drafting and patent prosecution. He consults with attorneys facing peculiar procedural issues at the Patent Office, advises investors and executives on patent law changes and pending litigation matters, and works with start-up businesses throughout the United States and around the world, primarily dealing with software and computer related innovations. Gene is admitted to practice law in New Hampshire, is a Registered Patent Attorney and is also admitted to practice before the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit. CLICK HERE to send Gene a message.


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