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000-N02 IBM Managed File Transfer Technical Mastery Test v1

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000-N02 exam Dumps Source : IBM Managed File Transfer Technical Mastery Test v1

Test Code : 000-N02
Test Name : IBM Managed File Transfer Technical Mastery Test v1
Vendor Name : IBM
Q&A : 33 Real Questions

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IBM IBM Managed File Transfer

global Managed File transfer (MFT) software and features market evaluation 2019-2024 examined in new market research record | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

global Managed File transfer (MFT) application and functions Market trade is awfully crucial to increase business productivity and for the analyze of market forecast.

Managed File switch (MFT) software & capabilities market dimension will develop from XX Million in 2018 to XX Million by means of 2024, at an estimated CAGR of XX %. the bottom 12 months regarded for the examine is 2017, and the market dimension is projected from 2018 to 2023.

Managed file switch is a type of application that permits the switch of data inner a company or between assorted businesses. This formula is a fast, at ease, official, and a clear means of exchanging files, with extra aspects akin to monitoring and monitoring.

subsequently, you can still discover the lack of statistics from a specific factor, and additionally obtain an acknowledgement after a success completion of a file switch system. With the introduction of digitalization, groups are becoming heavily stylish on the successful transmission of digital data bearing essential advice.

therefore, this transmission should be comfortable, authentic, and short to run the business method easily in actual time. The demand for productive and advantageous file switch has been increasing during the past few years.

a similar fashion is expected to proceed all through the subsequent 5 to six years.

Enquire more details of the report at: www.orbisresearch.com/contacts/request-sample/2450534

by using Market gamers:Axway Inc., IBM organization, Oracle enterprise, application AG, CA technologies Inc., GlobalSCAPE, Inc., Wipro limited, Swift, Micro focus foreign plc, Signiant Inc. 

with the aid of TypeSoftware, functions , 

with the aid of VerticalBFSI, Media & amusement, Retail, Manufacturing, Telecommunication, Others , 

The best aim of this report is to aid the consumer take into account the market when it comes to its definition, segmentation, market competencies, influential developments, and the challenges that the market is dealing with. Deep researches and evaluation were executed throughout the guidance of the report.

The readers will locate this document very helpful in realizing the market in depth. The records and the suggestions related to the market are taken from reliable sources such as websites, annual reports of the organizations, journals, and others and have been checked and validated by means of the business specialists.

The records and information are represented in the report using diagrams, graphs, pie charts, and other pictorial representations. This enhances the visible representation and additionally helps in figuring out the information an awful lot more suitable.

features covered in the file:The elements that are mentioned in the report are the principal market players which are involved out there akin to manufacturers, raw material suppliers, machine suppliers, end users, merchants, distributors and.The comprehensive profile of the businesses is mentioned. And the potential, production, fee, profits, cost, gross, gross margin, revenue quantity, revenue profits, consumption, growth expense, import, export, deliver, future options, and the technological traits that they're making are additionally blanketed inside the record.

The ancient records from 2012 to 2017 and forecast statistics from 2018 to 2023.The growth elements of the market is mentioned in detail wherein the different end users of the market are explained in element.facts and guidance by way of manufacturer, by way of place, by means of category, via utility and. and custom research can also be delivered in line with particular requirements.The file carries the SWOT analysis of the market. ultimately, the file carries the conclusion part where the opinions of the economic specialists are blanketed.

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Managed File transfer Market 2019 international evaluation with the aid of Key avid gamers – IBM, Axway, Saison tips programs, Opentext, CA technologies | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Managed File transfer Market 2019

Wiseguyreports.Com provides “Managed File transfer Market –Market Demand, increase, alternatives, analysis of precise Key players and Forecast to 2025” To Its research Database.

document details:

This record provides in depth study of “Managed File switch Market” the use of SWOT analysis i.e. electricity, weak spot, alternatives and hazard to the company. The Managed File transfer Market report additionally gives an in-depth survey of key players out there which is in accordance with the a considerable number of targets of a company similar to profiling, the product define, the amount of production, required uncooked fabric, and the fiscal fitness of the corporation.

This report studies the Managed File transfer market status and outlook of international and principal areas, from angles of producers, regions, product varieties and conclusion industries; this report analyzes the suitable producers in global and foremost regions, and splits the Managed File switch market by using product type and functions/end industries.

The global Managed File switch market is valued at 1084.four million USD in 2018 and is anticipated to attain 1687.0 million USD by the conclusion of 2025, starting to be at a CAGR of 6.47% between 2018 and 2025.

The principal avid gamers in world Managed File switch market include IBM Axway Saison assistance programs Opentext CA technologies Accellion Globalscape Primeur Jscape Ipswitch Micro focus TIBCO Attunity SSH Coviant application

Request a pattern report @ www.wiseguyreports.com/sample-request/3713532-world-mana...

On the foundation of product, the Managed File transfer market is primarily split into equipment-centric File switch people-centric File switch severe File transfer 

On the groundwork on the conclusion clients/functions, this record covers Banking, financial provider & assurance (BFSI) Media & enjoyment Retail Manufacturing Telecommunication Others (executive, power & Utility, marketing & advertising)

Geographically, this file is segmented into a couple of key regions, with output/production, consumption, income, market share and increase rate of Managed File switch in these regions, from 2014 to 2025 (forecast), masking united states Europe Japan China India Southeast Asia central & South the usa Row

Key Stakeholders Managed File switch manufacturers Managed File switch Distributors/merchants/Wholesalers Managed File transfer Subcomponent producers trade affiliation Downstream companies

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important Key aspects in table of content material:

1 report Overview 1     1.1 look at Scope 1     1.2 Key Market Segments 1     1.three players lined 2     1.four Market evaluation through class 3       1.four.1 global Managed File transfer Market measurement boom rate through type (2014-2025) 3       1.four.2 device-centric File transfer 4       1.4.3 people-centric File switch 4       1.four.four excessive File transfer 5     1.5 Market by way of utility 6     1.6 look at pursuits 7     1.7 Years considered 8 

2 global boom developments 9     2.1 global Managed File switch Market size 9     2.2 Managed File transfer increase tendencies by areas 9       2.2.1 Managed File switch Market dimension via regions (2019-2025) 9       2.2.2 Managed File switch Market Share via areas (2014-2019) 10     2.3 business traits 12 

…..

12 Key avid gamers Profiles 48     12.1 IBM forty eight       12.1.1 enterprise simple guidance, Manufacturing Base, sales area and Its opponents forty eight       12.1.2 Managed File switch Product Overview forty eight       12.1.three IBM Managed File transfer earnings (Million USD) and Gross Margin (%) (2014-2019) 49       12.1.4 leading enterprise/company Overview 50     12.2 Axway 51       12.2.1 enterprise fundamental tips, Manufacturing Base, sales enviornment and Its competitors 51       12.2.2 Managed File transfer Product Overview 51       12.2.three Axway Managed File switch revenue (Million USD) and Gross Margin (%) (2014-2019) fifty two       12.2.4 leading enterprise/business Overview 53     12.3 Saison information techniques 54       12.3.1 company fundamental guidance, Manufacturing Base, sales enviornment and Its rivals fifty four       12.3.2 Managed File transfer Product Overview 54       12.3.three Saison assistance programs Managed File switch salary (Million USD) and Gross Margin (%) (2014-2019) 55       12.3.four leading company/company Overview 56     12.four Opentext 57       12.4.1 business simple advice, Manufacturing Base, earnings area and Its rivals fifty seven       12.four.2 Managed File transfer Product Overview fifty seven       12.four.3 Opentext Managed File transfer income (Million USD) and Gross Margin (%) (2014-2019) 58       12.4.4 main company/business Overview 59     12.5 CA technologies 60       12.5.1 company simple advice, Manufacturing Base, sales enviornment and Its competitors 60       12.5.2 Managed File transfer Product Overview 60       12.5.three CA applied sciences Managed File switch earnings (Million USD) and Gross Margin (%) (2014-2019) 61       12.5.4 main business/business Overview sixty two     12.6 Accellion 63       12.5.1 company fundamental counsel, Manufacturing Base, income enviornment and Its rivals 63       12.6.2 Managed File transfer Product Overview sixty three       12.6.3 Accellion Managed File switch income (Million USD) and Gross Margin (%) (2014-2019) 64       12.6.four main enterprise/business Overview sixty five     12.7 Globalscape sixty six       12.7.1 business basic information, Manufacturing Base, sales enviornment and Its competitors sixty six       12.7.2 Managed File transfer Product Overview sixty six       12.7.three Globalscape Managed File switch earnings (Million USD) and Gross Margin (%) (2014-2019) 67       12.7.4 main company/company Overview 68     12.eight Primeur sixty nine       12.eight.1 business simple advice, Manufacturing Base, sales enviornment and Its rivals 69       12.8.2 Managed File switch Product Overview sixty nine       12.eight.3 Primeur Managed File transfer salary (Million USD) and Gross Margin (%) (2014-2019) 70       12.eight.4 leading company/company Overview 71     12.9 Jscape seventy two       12.9.1 enterprise basic tips, Manufacturing Base, revenue enviornment and Its competitors 72       12.9.2 Managed File switch Product Overview seventy two       12.9.three Jscape Managed File transfer income (Million USD) and Gross Margin (%) (2014-2019) 73       12.9.four main business/enterprise Overview 74     12.10 Ipswitch 75       12.10.1 enterprise fundamental counsel, Manufacturing Base, earnings enviornment and Its opponents seventy five       12.10.2 Managed File switch Product Overview 75       12.10.3 Ipswitch Managed File switch revenue (Million USD) and Gross Margin (%) (2014-2019) seventy six       12.10.four leading business/business Overview 77 

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At 5.2% CAGR, Managed File switch software Market dimension to reach 1510 million USD with the aid of 2025 | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Feb 12, 2019 (Heraldkeeper by means of COMTEX) -- In 2018, the world Managed File switch software market measurement turned into 1010 million US$ and it's anticipated to attain 1510 million US$ by way of the end of 2025, with a CAGR of 5.2% throughout 2019-2025.

Managed file switch (MFT) is a type of application used to provide at ease interior, external and advert-hoc information transfers through a network. MFT items are constructed the usage of the FTP network protocol. although, as a result of federal rules require that MFT items meet strict regulatory compliance standards, they encompass mechanisms to make certain a better degree of protection and aid retain suggestions private.

Request a pattern file of Managed File transfer utility Market at:https://www.marketstudyreport.com/request-a-pattern/1533277?utm_source=marketwatch.com&utm_medium=AN

in the market, Managed File transfer application are a variety of. in keeping with the distinctive demand objects, lengthy and short income channels are all flourishing.

Managed File transfer utility advertising and marketing channels can also be divided into two varieties: 1) enterprise direct distribution channels, particularly, the Managed File transfer utility manufacturers at once provide Managed File switch utility to the downstream business corporations. 2) corporations oblique distribution channels. The patrons above all applies direct distribution channel for individual parameters of Managed File switch utility.

there's a huge market ahead of the Managed File switch application. The market channel is primary to each manufacture and they're paying more and more attention to their channel constructing.

consumer are concerning more on the product quality and funtions. So, apart from all of the distributors and direct advertising, they are also accept as true with their functions, making bound that each items and services are enhanced than the competitors.

Ask for cut price on Managed File switch utility Market file at:https://www.marketstudyreport.com/determine-for-cut price/1533277?utm_source=marketwatch.com&utm_medium=AN

Enumerating a rough coverage of the Managed File switch utility market analysis record:

An in-depth portrayal of the regional landscape of the Managed File switch application market:

? The research study enumerates the regional spectrum of this trade in flawless aspect, segmenting it into united states, China, Europe, Japan, Southeast Asia & India.

? assistance touching on the market share held through every topography as neatly because the ability and the increase possibilities were introduced meticulously.

? The boom rate that every place is predicted to register over the projected timeline has been mentioned in the examine.

an in depth cover-up of the competitive terrain of the Managed File transfer application market:

? The document within the Managed File switch application market is inclusive of an in-depth evaluation of the competitive spectrum of this business sphere, that well-nigh comprises establishments reminiscent of IBM, Axway, Saison information techniques, OpenText(Hightail), CA applied sciences, Accellion, GlobalSCAPE, Primeur, Signiant, Ipswitch, Micro center of attention, TIBCO, Attunity and SSH (Tectia.

? particulars like the sales enviornment and the market share held by way of every seller in the company were enumerated.

? further, the report encompasses details about the items developed by the producers in question, with product requisites and their respective applications.

? a quick overview of the company as neatly because the cost models and the gross margins have additionally been outlined in the record.

a few different takeaways from the analysis analyze on the Managed File transfer utility market:

? The product spectrum of the Managed File switch application market, inherently segmented into equipment-centric File switch, americans-centric File switch and intense File switch.

? significant data pertaining to the market share procured through every product in query, in tandem with the earnings they account for out there as well because the creation boom.

? an intensive run-through of the Managed File transfer software market software spectrum, pervasively categorised into BFSI, Media & enjoyment, Retail, Manufacturing, Telecommunication and Others.

? particulars bearing on the market share that each software is held dependable for, as well as data regarding the product consumption with the aid of each utility and the growth rate at which each software section is anticipated to register over the forecast timeframe.

? a number of simple details related to parameters such because the market awareness cost and the construction expense of raw fabric.

? The rate traits regular within the Managed File switch application market as smartly as the anticipated increase tendencies for this vertical.

? An in-depth contrast of the advertising strategy, which contains the advertising channels deployed via leading vendors for product commercialization (like direct/oblique advertising).

? critical details with regards to the market positioning as well because the advertising channel building vogue. speaking of the market positioning, the report is additionally inclusive of a discussion that elaborates on company administration, goal consumers, and numerous pricing strategies.

? The distributors forming a part of the give chain, in tandem with the suppliers and fluctuating raw cloth developments.

? The manufacturing charge constitution, inclusive of labor expenditure and manufacturing cost, as well as suggestions touching on industrial chain analysis, downstream consumers, and sourcing strategies.

For extra details On this document:https://www.marketstudyreport.com/experiences/global-managed-file-switch-software-market-size-reputation-and-forecast-2019-2025

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Recruitment (hiring) is a core feature of human resource management. Recruitment refers back to the process of finding and hiring the top-quality-qualified candidate (from within or outside of an organization) for a job opening, in a well timed and economical method. The recruitment process includes inspecting the requirements of a job, attracting employees to that job, screening and choosing applicants, hiring, and integrating the brand new worker to the organization. information superhighway-based mostly technologies to guide all facets of recruitment have develop into frequent.

study extra: https://www.marketstudyreport.com/reviews/global-recruitment-market-size-repute-and-forecast-2019-2025

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The main gamers in European market are Amazon web features, Salesforce, Microsoft Azure, IBM, Google Cloud Platform, SAP, Rackspace, H&P Helion, OVH, Avaya and Oracle, which occupied about 75% market share in 2016. Cloud Computing Stack Layers is notably used for 2 functions: commercial Use, Public services, other. And industrial use was the most known classification which took up about 70% of the world total in 2016. In 2018, the international Cloud Computing Stack Layers market size turned into xx million US$ and it's anticipated to attain xx million US$ by using the end of 2025, with a CAGR of xx% right through 2019-2025.

study more: https://www.marketstudyreport.com/reviews/world-cloud-computing-stack-layers-market-measurement-status-and-forecast-2019-2025

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Success of GitHub deal hinges on Azure's open source appeal | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

Microsoft's acquisition of GitHub represents a full embrace of the open source community, but it will take time to know how the deal will affect Microsoft's bottom line.

To convert its GitHub deal into a profitable venture, Microsoft must convince the open source community to more aggressively adopt some of its core proprietary platforms -- particularly Azure. Expansion of the cloud-based environment into new markets, even if it's a drawn-out process, is behind Microsoft's decision to purchase the open source code repository, according to analysts.

"Microsoft is of the mindset that once it gets a customer on Azure, it can expand the account from there," said Kelsey Mason, a senior analyst with Technology Business Research Inc. in Hampton, N.H. "In an ideal world, this acquisition could start developers thinking of Microsoft as a 'go-to' in terms of open source."

But that's a delicate balance to strike. If Microsoft pushes open source developers too hard to adopt Azure and other products in its vast portfolio, or if it makes it difficult for them to work with competing cloud platforms, such as AWS and Google, many developers could flee to competing code repositories. Or, worse, they could complain to the Department of Justice about Microsoft's illegal use of its monopoly position in the market.

"This [GitHub deal] will either be one of Microsoft's smartest acquisitions, or it's going to live alongside Nokia as another failed Microsoft acquisition," Mason said.

Many analysts said they believe Microsoft has reformed and learned from its past mistakes. They pointed out more large corporate customers want to build their own open source applications to live alongside Windows-based products, which represents a rich financial opportunity. So, it behooves Microsoft to behave.

"This is the new world now, and Microsoft realizes it," said Jean Bozman, principal analyst with Hurwitz & Associates in Needham, Mass. "They have worked very closely with the open source and Linux communities more than we ever thought they would. But they still have to put the work in to win the hearts and minds of the open source world."

This [GitHub deal] will either be one of Microsoft's smartest acquisitions, or it's going to live alongside Nokia as another failed Microsoft acquisition. Kelsey Masonanalyst, Technology Business Research Inc.

Others said they believe the timing of the GitHub deal fits the evolution of Microsoft's technical strategy, as the company deemphasizes Windows and gravitates rapidly toward open source and everything cloud.

"The operating-system space was broken open when Microsoft started competing against free alternatives, like Android," said Geoff Woollacott, senior strategy consultant and principal analyst with Technology Business Research Inc. "The [GitHub] deal makes sense when you look at the continued portability of the application layer that goes across different open technology stacks."

In a blog that disclosed the deal, Microsoft CEO Satya Nadella committed to keeping GitHub an open platform, where all developers can choose their own programming tools and operating systems and deploy code on any cloud or device. Microsoft also will encourage enterprise developers' use of GitHub through its direct sales force and reseller channels, he added.

Evidence in recent years indicates Microsoft can play by those rules, from its acquisitions of open source companies to its increased software contributions to the open source community -- especially GitHub.

While Microsoft gave no indication of how it might monetize the acquisition of GitHub, some users and analysts had speculated how Microsoft might recoup some of its $7.5 billion investment. Some of that returned value may not be financial, but perhaps something less measurable that will pay off further down the road.

"I don't look at this acquisition as purely financial at all," said one source close to Microsoft. "How that [$7.5 billion] number comes back to us may not be in the way of hard, cold cash, but something more intangible ... It's a big bet, but a calculated one."


Have We Entered a Post-Literate Technological Age? | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

Not long ago, Google produced a video that’s making the rounds on the Internet. In it, a Google employee asks people in Times Square in New York City a series of questions, such as “What is a browser?”, “What browser do you use?”, and “Have you heard of Google Chrome?” (Chrome is Google’s new Web browser; it’s available for Windows and in pre-release test versions for the Mac.)

Among the geek set, the video has gotten a lot of play because most of the people in the video – who appear to be functional adults and who use the Internet regularly – come off as highly clueless. According to the video, only 8 percent of people queried that day knew what a browser is.

The video is clearly not a scientific study, and suffers from horrible methodology. It’s likely, for instance, that simply asking “What is a Web browser?” would have produced better results, and the middle of Times Square is undoubtedly not where most people are thinking about the names of programs on their computers. But let’s leave aside such criticisms for the moment.

What’s Your Browser? Instead, let’s take the results on face value and consider their implications. What does it say about the technological world in which we live that 92 percent of the people asked could not identify the name of the program they use to access the Web? If other statistics are to be believed, browsing the Web is the primary use of computers today, so that’s saying these people couldn’t name the program they use more than any other.

Worse, some of the answers on the video reveal that they don’t even know what a program is. A number of them identified their browser as “a search engine” and “Google.” When asked which browser he used, one guy said “the big E,” undoubtedly meaning Microsoft Internet Explorer, which has a stylized lowercase letter E as its icon.

When the best someone can come up with is a vague recollection of a program’s icon, it says to me that we’ve entered a “post-literate” technological society, one in which people have lost not just the ability to read and write about a topic, but also the ability to speak about it, all while retaining the ability to use it.

As someone who earns a living crafting text to help people learn how to use technology, I found myself profoundly troubled by Google’s video. After all, if someone doesn’t know what browser they use, or even that a browser is a program on their computer, how could I possibly expect them to be interested in buying my company’s “Take Control of Safari 4” book (written, with infinite care, by the estimable Sharon Zardetto)? How could they even learn of its existence, if they had no idea that Safari is a Web browser or that they were using Safari?

(One concern that I don’t explore further in this article are the implications of a post-literate technological society for marketing technology itself – will even technology marketing be forced to rely solely on pretty pictures and emotional appeals? In fact, are we already there? Apple’s “I’m a Mac” ads help customers identify with the actor playing the Mac but give little solid information, and Apple conceals many technical specifications about the iPhone.)

But perhaps I’m barking up the wrong tree, and Google’s video in fact shows that we’ve taken great technological strides. TidBITS editor Glenn Fleishman, when we were discussing the video, suggested that it’s a good thing that the Web browser has become so ubiquitous that people need not know what it’s called to use it effectively.

(Linguistically, this same devolution has happened with the Web itself. Although it’s TidBITS house style to capitalize “Web” – a proper noun that’s a shortening of “World Wide Web” – it’s commonplace to see even professionally edited publications lowercase the word, thus de-emphasizing the fact that it’s a unique thing. I think they’re wrong: “Web” should always be capitalized, as should “Internet.”)

From a usability stance, I think I agree with Glenn – it’s a good thing that using the Web has become so easy that a myriad of people can do so without even knowing the name of the tool they use to access it. Most people just use the browser that comes bundled with their computer, and despite the issues with Microsoft Internet Explorer over the years, Firefox has garnered only a bit over 20 percent of the browser market since 2004 – largely from the small subset of people who know what a browser is.

On a platform like the iPhone, it’s even easier to see this trend toward obscuring the identity of the browser. Although Safari is the iPhone’s Web browser, and its icon is clearly named, applications like Twitterrific can display Web content internally, and others, like Mail, can open a Web link in Safari without ever informing you that Safari is displaying your page. It would be difficult to quibble with someone who didn’t realize that their iPhone browser was Safari, when in fact, much of the time they would be viewing the Web via some other app that piggybacks on top of OS X’s WebKit core.

Tied up in all of this is the fact that if what’s bundled with your computer or phone just works, you don’t need to learn much more. Dissatisfaction is the mother of exploration – only if Safari or Internet Explorer isn’t meeting your needs do you have much impetus to learn about and switch to Firefox. So the better technology works, the less we’ll learn about how it works. I can’t say that’s entirely a bad thing.

When the Thing Breaks — But I remain troubled by this post-literate inability to talk about everyday activities and the tools used to perform them, using the proper nouns that are not only generally agreed-upon by those in the know, but with which the graphical representations of those tools are clearly labeled. What happens when something goes wrong, and such a person can’t connect to the Internet at all? Can you imagine the tech support call?

"Hi, this is tech support. How may I help you?"

"I can't get on the Google."

"OK, what browser are you using?"

"I told you - Google."

"Let's step back for a second. What program are you running on your computer to access the Web?"

"I don't know - I just Google when I want to find something."

"Perhaps we should go a bit further back. What icon do you click on when you want to use Google?"

"The picture? It's blue and kind of round, I think."

"OK, that's probably Internet Explorer. Can you load any Web sites other than Google?"

"If I can't get on Google, how can I load any other Web sites?!"

I could draw this out further, but it’s not far-fetched (TidBITS staffer Doug McLean confirmed that my contrived dialog was painfully reminiscent of tech support calls he took in a previous job). In essence, the caller and the support rep don’t share a common language. They may both be speaking English, but that’s as far as it goes, and as soon as domain-specific words like “browser” come into play, communication breaks down. A good support rep would undoubtedly adjust his questions upon realizing that there’s a terminology barrier, and like Captain Kirk meeting an alien, would attempt to build up some shared terminology based on visual appearance before attempting to solve the problem.

Generational Problem Solving — If I asked you to tell me something about the caller in my fabricated script above, you might fall back on stereotypes and describe the caller as being elderly, or at least as someone who didn’t grow up with technology and therefore has come to it, perhaps grudgingly, later in life. But what if I told you it could be a college student?

My neighbor Peter Rothbart teaches music at Ithaca College, and he’s been noticing a disturbing trend among his students. Although they’re capable of using the digital music software necessary for his courses, he says that many of them have trouble with the most basic of computer tasks, like saving files in a particular location on the hard disk. Worse, if something does go wrong, he finds, they have absolutely no idea how to solve the problem.

These aren’t the sort of kids who are befuddled by high school – they’re students at a well-respected institution of higher education. (It’s the alma mater of Disney CEO Robert Iger, for instance.) No, they’re not computer science majors, but they’re not being asked to program, just to use off-the-shelf music software and perform commonplace tasks. And now those commonplace tasks are not only something that they apparently have never had to do, but lack the skills to figure out on their own.

Could this inability to solve a problem with a device with which they are otherwise familiar be a result of losing some ability to talk about it? I wouldn’t go so far as to say it’s impossible to troubleshoot without terminology, but it’s less radical to suggest that troubleshooting will become more difficult without being able to communicate effectively with people who are experts in the field.

Not all that long ago, when adults had trouble getting something working on a computer, they would sarcastically say that they needed a teenager to explain it to them. That was largely true of those of us who were teenagers in the 1980s and 1990s, but if Peter Rothbart’s experience is at all representative, today you’d be better off finding a 30- or 40-year-old geek to help.

Don’t get me wrong – I’m not saying that all young people are incapable of solving technical problems or going beyond the basics. My friend Dave Burbank, whose full-time job is as a fireman in the City of Ithaca, is also a serious geek known for taking hundreds of photos on his kids’ class trips, posting constant updates via Twitter, and updating a photo Web site for the trip before turning in each night. His 15-year-old son Istvan is currently a 3D animator at Moving Box Studios in Ithaca and is perfectly capable of maintaining a technical discussion on the evolution of backup media and other such geeky topics.

In other words, there will always be geeks, and in my mind, that’s a darn good thing. The technological sophistication of those people of my generation (I’m 41 now) who were interested in technology created the meme that young people were fluid with technology. But what we all missed was that being fluid with technology doesn’t mean you understand how it works or can fix it when it breaks. Being able to dash off text messages on a mobile phone demonstrates fluidity; being able to troubleshoot a dead Internet connection down to a corrupted preference file or flaky cable demonstrates understanding.

So what will most members of society do when something on their computers or smartphones fails to work? Let’s not pretend that problems won’t happen – technology may have become more reliable over time, but the rate at which things go wrong even for undemanding users is still shamefully high.

Just recently, my father called because his iPod wouldn’t show up in iTunes. After some back and forth, I suggested that he reset the iPod, and when he went to use it, he realized it was indeed entirely frozen. A hard reset brought it back to life and resolved his problem, but had he been on his own, it’s possible that he – or at least someone less experienced than he is – would have concluded it was broken and bought another one.

This isn’t a new concern. In 1909, E.M. Forster wrote a piece of early science fiction, “The Machine Stops,” in which he imagined a future in which face-to-face contact was considered bizarre, humanity lived underground, and the “Machine” fed all our needs. Of course, one day…the machine stopped. More recently and amusingly, consider the Pixar movie “Wall-E.”

Cars and Computers — The obvious analogy in today’s world, and one that several people have suggested in response to our discussions, is the car. At one time, knowledge of keeping a car running was a kind of patriarchal rite of passage. Failure to monitor oil levels, radiator fluids, and other factors could lead to a dead horseless carriage.

Few people know how cars work these days, and even those of us who do have a basic understanding of them can’t really work on a modern car. If the car stutters when accelerating, or sometimes won’t start, most of us simply take it in to the repair shop and get it fixed. Problem solved with the application of money, and of course, since cars work relatively well these days, much less monitoring is needed. When was the last time you checked your car’s fluids?

Like so many automotive analogies, this one sounds good, but suffers under scrutiny. In part, repairing cars has become a specialty not so much because intelligent people couldn’t understand what’s wrong or figure out how to troubleshoot it, but because the training and equipment necessary to diagnose problems and effect repairs have themselves become highly specialized. Gone are the days when you could fix a car with a few screwdrivers and a set of wrenches. The shops all download data from the car computer for diagnosis.

But the more serious problem with the analogy is that cars are single-purpose machines – they do one thing, and they do it moderately well. Thus, the type of problems they can suffer, while troubling, frustrating, and sometimes seemingly inexplicable, are still relatively limited in scope, more like a household appliance. How often do you have to check the inner workings of your washing machine or refrigerator?

In contrast, computers are general purpose machines that can perform a vast number of wildly different tasks, such as browsing the Web, reading email, writing a book, developing a company budget, tracking a database of customers, composing music, editing video, and so on.

We have up-and-coming geeks like Istvan Burbank, but even bright young men like Istvan have their limits. While I’d happily ask him to fix a Mac that’s not booting, I’m not sure he’d have any idea how to help if I showed him a PDF where the text on some pages appeared darker and bitmapped when viewed in certain PDF readers (even Adobe hasn’t been able to fix that problem reliably for me). There’s a limit to how much any one of us can learn, but there’s no limit to what a computer can do.

In a way, this is an odd situation for those of us who grew up with the personal computer. Before Apple, before the IBM PC, we had mainframes and minicomputers that we interacted with via dumb terminals. You couldn’t do all that much, and you were sharing resources with many other people, but you also didn’t have to worry about things going wrong as much, because when they did, the computer operators would fix them.

They were the gatekeepers, the wizards who controlled access and could say who was allowed to do what. Personal computers were supposed to democratize computing so anyone and everyone could do their own work. While that’s come to pass in some ways, it seems to me that we’ve returned to the days when you need a wizard to solve problems or do anything beyond the norm. It’s a somewhat uncomfortable situation, since those of us who grew up with personal computers are finding that we’re the new wizards.

Technological Illiteracy — So how did we get here? I’d argue that Apple – and we Macintosh users – are perhaps more to blame for this state of affairs than any other group. After all, no one has championed usability like Apple, with the Mac’s vaunted ease-of-use. For years, many Mac users scoffed at manuals. “Why would anyone need a manual when the program is so easy to use?” they’d ask. It was a fair point, for the users of the time, who were highly interested in the technology, well versed in how it actually worked under the hood, and amenable to poking and prodding when things didn’t go right.

But then we got our wish, and ever more companies started writing software that was easy enough for most people to use without reading a manual, at least at some level. That was the death of documentation, a phrase I first coined more than 10 years ago (see “The Death of Documentation,” 1998-05-04). Of course, it was really the death of the manual, and technical books have remained popular, in part because of the lack of the manual (how else could David Pogue have made a mint on his Missing Manual series?).

Even still, back when I started writing technical books in the early-to-mid 1990s, the average computer book would sell about 12,000 copies. Today, despite a vastly larger audience (though with much more competition), 5,000 copies is considered acceptable.

I’d argue there was a more insidious effect from the loss of manuals – it caused an entire class of users to become technologically functional while remaining technologically illiterate. When I asked my mother-in-law, Linda Byard, what browser she used, she became somewhat flustered and guessed at Outlook. This is a woman who uses the Web fluidly and for all sorts of tasks far more sophisticated than simply browsing static Web pages. And yet, the fact that she used Internet Explorer to do so escaped her.

As the conversation proceeded (and keep in mind that my father-in-law, Cory Byard, helped design personal computers for NCR back in the 1980s and now consults on massive database projects for Teradata – Tonya didn’t grow up in a technologically backward household), it came out that Linda had stopped reading about how to use technology when manuals gave way to inferior online help.

She didn’t stop learning how to use various programs, but without any sort of formalized instruction or written reference, she lost the terminology necessary to talk about the technology she was using. Of course, she had Cory around to fix anything that went wrong, and she said that the same was true of all her peers too – there was always someone technologically adept in the family to deal with troubles.

Although it’s harder to pin this loss of technological literacy on the lack of manuals when looking at schoolkids, the problem isn’t necessarily being addressed there either. When my son Tristan was in second and third grade in the public schools in Ithaca, NY, the closest he was taught to computer skills were typing (not a terrible idea, but tricky for kids whose hands aren’t large enough to touch-type properly) and PowerPoint.

Although some level of presentation skills are certainly worthwhile, why would you have second graders focus on something that’s guaranteed to be different (if not entirely obsolete) by the time they’re in college?

I’d argue that some of the basics of technology – the concept of a program as a set of instructions and the essentials of networking – would be both more compelling for kids and more useful for understanding the way the world works later in life.

When TidBITS contributing editor Matt Neuburg tried to teach a group of his friends’ kids REALbasic one summer, he found himself frustrated at almost every turn – they lacked the conceptual underpinning that they could make the computer do something. And more important, they didn’t care, since they were accustomed to technology just working. It wasn’t until he got them to draw a stick figure and, by changing the location of its parts repeatedly, make it walk across the screen, that one of them said, “Hey, this must be how my video games are made.”

And networking? No, you don’t need to know it works to use the Internet, but isn’t it wondrous that an email message sent to a friend on the other side of the globe in Australia is broken up into many small pieces, shuttled from computer to computer at nearly the speed of light, and reassembled at its destination, no more than seconds later? Wouldn’t it be fun to act out a packet-switched network with an entire class of second graders and the pieces of a floor puzzle? Or at least more fun than PowerPoint?

Luckily, this lack in the public education system isn’t uniform. Glenn Fleishman’s son Ben is about to enter a public elementary school in Seattle, where the beginning curriculum teaches kids about opening, saving, and printing files; later, it moves to task-based – not program-oriented – computer projects. That’s much better.

But I digress.

Illiteracy Stifling Innovation? My more serious concern with our society’s odd fluency with a technology that we cannot easily communicate about is that it might slowly stifle innovation. Already we’re in a situation where browser innovation is almost the sole province of Apple and Microsoft, with contributions from Mozilla, Google, and maybe Opera.

Iterative changes from the incumbents can be worked in, since everyone will be forced to accept them, but does it become harder to convince most people to try a ground-breaking new technology because it’s different, because it’s talked about using strange new terminology, and perhaps because no paradigm-shifting new technology can by definition be so easy to use that it doesn’t require some level of training? I fear that might be the case.

In the dawn of the computer age, the stakes weren’t as high and the market wasn’t as large, so I’d suggest that companies were more likely to take risks on innovative technologies that might appeal to only a small subset of the population. Today, with everyone using technology, I suspect that business plans and funding proposals all assume a large potential audience, which in turn causes the ideas to be vetted more on their business chances than their technological innovation.

Put another way, there have always been technological haves and have nots, but since there was no chance of selling technology to the have nots, technology of the past was less limited by the literacy of the audience. Since the technologically illiterate are not just buying technology now, but are the primary market for it, that has to be affecting the kind of ideas that get funding and are being developed in a real way.

Plus, think back to the point about dissatisfaction being the mother of exploration. We geeks may be willing to belly up to the new technology feeding trough since we’re never satisfied. But once technology reaches a certain plateau of working well enough, if this lack of technological literacy is indeed a more general concern, spreading technological successes into the population as a whole may become all the more difficult.

I’m fully aware that my musings here are largely hypothetical and based on anecdotal evidence. But I think there’s a new technology on the horizon that could serve as a test of my theory that anything sufficiently innovative will face an uphill battle due to the technological illiteracy of the user base: Google Wave.

For those who didn’t see Google’s announcement of Google Wave (we didn’t cover it in TidBITS at the time because it was a technology announcement, not a service that people could use), it’s a personal communication and collaboration tool that’s designed to merge the strengths of email, instant messaging, wikis, and social networking services. (You can read more about it at Wikipedia.)

On the plus side, Google Wave has the power of Google behind it, and Google could potentially merge it into Gmail, thus introducing it to 146 million users nearly instantaneously. But Google Wave will undoubtedly be quite different from Gmail, and will require a learning curve. Will that hamper its adoption, since email and instant messaging and other services work well enough that people aren’t sufficiently dissatisfied to learn about and try Google Wave? Only time will tell.


Avoid Bothersome Garbage Collection Pauses | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

Many engineers complain that the non-deterministic behavior of the garbage collector prevents them from utilizing the Java environment for mission-critical applications, especially distributed message-driven displays (GUIs) where user responsiveness is critical. We agree that garbage collection does occur at the worst times: for example, when a user clicks a mouse or a new message enters the system requiring immediate processing. These events must be handled without the delay of in-progress garbage collection. How do we prevent these garbage collection pauses that interfere with the responsiveness of an application ("bothersome pauses")?

We have discovered a very effective technique to prevent bothersome garbage collection pauses and build responsive Java applications. This technique or pattern is especially effective for a distributive message-driven display system with soft real-time constraints. This article details this pattern in three simple steps and provides evidence of the effectiveness of the technique.

Pattern to Control Garbage Collection PausesThe Java environment provides so many benefits to the software community - platform independence, industry momentum, a plethora of resources (online tutorials, code, interest groups, etc.), object-oriented utilities and interfaces (collections, network I/O, Swing display, etc.) that can be plugged in and out - that once you have experienced working with Java it's hard to go back to traditional languages. Unfortunately, in some mission-critical applications, like message-driven GUIs that must be very responsive to user events, the requirements force you to take that step backward. There's no room for multiple second garbage collection pauses. (The garbage collector collects all the "unreachable" references in an application so the space consumed by them can be reused. It's a low-priority thread that usually only takes priority over other threads when the VM is running out of memory.) Do we really have to lose all the benefits of Java? First, let's consider the requirements.

A system engineer should consider imposing requirements for garbage collection like the following list taken from a telecom industry example (see References).1.  GC sequential overhead on a system may not be more than 10% to ensure scalability and optimal use of system resources for maximum throughput.2.  Any single GC pause during the entire application run may be no more than 200ms to meet the latency requirements as set by the protocol between the client and the server, and to ensure good response times by the server.

Armed with these requirements, the system engineer has defined the worst-case behavior in a manner that can be tested.

The next question is: How do we meet these requirements? Alka Gupta and Michael Doyle make excellent suggestions in their article (see References). Their approach is to tune the parameters on the Java Virtual Machine (JVM). We take a slightly different approach that leaves the use of parameter definitions as defined by the JVM to be used as a final tuning technique.

Why not tell the garbage collector what and when to collect?

In other words, control garbage collection via the software architecture. Make the job of the garbage collector easy! This technique can be described as a multiple step pattern. The first step of the pattern is described below as "Nullify Objects." The second step involves forcing garbage collection to occur as delineated in "Forcing Garbage Collection." The final step involves either placing persistent data out of the reach of the collector or into a data pool so that an application will continue to perform well in the long run.

Step 1: Nullify ObjectsMemory leaks strike fear into the hearts of programmers! Not only do they degrade performance, they eventually terminate the application. Yet memory leaks prove very subtle and difficult to debug. The JVM performs garbage collection in the background, freeing the coder from such details, but traps still exist. The biggest danger is placing an object into a collection and forgetting to remove it. The memory used by that object will never be reclaimed.

A programmer can prevent this type of memory leak by setting the object reference and all underlying object references ("deep" objects) to null when the object is no longer needed. Setting an object reference to "null" tells the garbage collector that at least this one reference to the object is no longer needed. Once all references to an object are cleared, the garbage collector is free to reclaim that space. Giving the collector such "hints" makes its job easier and faster. Moreover, a smaller memory footprint also makes an application run faster.

Knowing when to set an object reference to null requires a complete understanding of the problem space. For instance, if the remote receiver allocates the memory space for a message, the rest of the application must know when to release the space back for reuse. Study the domain. Once an object or "subobject" is no longer needed, tell the garbage collector.

Thus, the first step of the pattern is to set objects to null once you're sure they're no longer needed. We call this step "nullify" and include it in the definition of the classes of frequently used objects.

The following code snippet shows a method that "nullifies" a track object. The class members that consist of primitives only (contain no additional class objects) are set to null directly, as in lines 3-5. The class members that contain class objects provide their own nullify method as in line 9.

1 public void nullify () {23 this.threatId = null ;4 this.elPosition = null ;5 this.kinematics = null ;67 if (this.iff != null)8 {9 this.iff.nullify();10 this.iff = null ;11 }12 }

The track nullify is called from the thread that has completed processing the message. In other words, once the message has been stored or processed, that thread tells the JVM it no longer needs that object. Also, if the object was placed in some Collection (like an ArrayList), it's removed from the Collection and set to null.

By setting objects to null in this manner, the garbage collector and thus the JVM can run more efficiently. Train yourself to program with "nullify" methods and their invocation in mind.

Step 2: "Force" Garbage CollectionThe second step of the pattern is to control when garbage collection occurs. The garbage collector, GC, runs as Java priority 1 (the lowest priority). The virtual machine, VM, runs at Java priority 10 (the highest priority). Most books recommend against the usage of Java priority 1 and 10 for assigning priorities to Java applications. In most cases, the GC runs during idle times, generally when the VM is waiting for user input or when the VM has run out of memory. In the latter case, the GC interrupts high-priority processing in the application.

Some programmers like to use the "-Xincgc" directive on the Java command line. This tells the JVM to perform garbage collection in increments when it desires. Again, the timing of the garbage collection may be inopportune. Instead, we suggest that the garbage collector perform a full garbage collection as soon as it can in either or both of two ways:1.  Request garbage collection to happen as soon as possible: This method proves useful when the programmer knows he or she has a "break" to garbage collect. For example, after a large image is loaded into memory and scaled, the memory footprint is large. Forcing a garbage collection to occur at that point is wise. Another good area may be after a large message has been processed in the application and is no longer needed.2.  Schedule garbage collection to occur at a fixed rate: This method is optimal when the programmer does not have a specific moment when he knows his application can stop shortly and garbage collect. Normally, most applications are written in this manner.

Listing 1 introduces a class named "BetterControlOfGC". It's a utility class that provides the methods described earlier. There are two public methods: "suggestGCNow()" and "scheduleRegularGC(milliseconds)" that respectively correspond to the steps described earlier. Line 7 suggests to the VM to garbage collect the unreachable objects as soon as possible. The documentation makes it clear that the garbage collection may not occur instantaneously, but experience has shown that it will be performed as soon as the VM is able to accomplish the task. Invoking the method on line 25 causes garbage collection to occur at a fixed rate as determined by the parameter to the method.

In scheduling the GC to occur at a fixed rate, a garbage collection stimulator task, GCStimulatorTask, is utilized. The code extends the "java.util.timer" thread in line 10. No new thread is created; the processing runs on the single timer thread available beginning with the Java 1.3 environment. Similarly, to keep the processing lean, the GC stimulator follows the Singleton pattern as shown by lines 18-23 and line 27. There can be only one stimulator per application, where an application is any code running on an instance of the JVM.

We suggest that you set the interval at which the garbage collector runs from a Java property file. Thus you can tune the application without having to recompile the code. Write some simple code to read a property file that's either a parameter on the command line or a resource bundle in the class path. Place the command parameter "-verbose:gc" on your executable command line and measure the time it takes to garbage collect. Tune this number until you achieve the results you want. If the budget allows, experiment with other virtual machines and/or hardware.

Step 3: Store Persistent Objects into Persistent Data Areas or Store Long-Lived Objects in PoolsUsing persistent data areas is purely optional. It supports the underlying premise of this article. In order to bind the disruption of the garbage collector in your application, make its job easy. If you know that an object or collection of objects would live for the duration of your application, let the collector know. It would be nice if the Java environment provided some sort of flag that could be placed on objects upon their creation to tell the garbage collector "-keep out". However, there is currently no such means. (The Real-Time Specification for Java describes an area of memory called "Immortal Memory" where objects live for the duration of the application and garbage collection should not run.) You may try using a database; however, this may slow down your application even more. Another solution currently under the Java Community Process is JSR 107. JCache provides a standard set of APIs and semantics that allow a programmer to cache frequently used data objects for the local JVM or across JVMs. This API is still under review and may not be available yet. However, we believe it holds much promise for the Java developer community. Keep this avenue open and in mind for future architectures. What can we do now?

The pooling of objects is not new to real-time programmers. The concept is to create all your expected data objects before you begin processing, then all your data can be placed into structures without the expense of instance creation during processing time. This has the advantage of keeping your memory footprint stable. It has the disadvantage of requiring a "deep copy" method to be written to store the data into the pool. (If you simply set an object to another, you're changing the object reference and not reusing the same space.) The nanosecond expense of the deep copy is far less than that of the object instance creation.

If the data pooling technique is combined with the proper use of the "nullify" technique, garbage collection becomes optimized. The reasons are fairly straightforward:1.  Since the object is set to null immediately after the deep copy, it lives only in the young generation portion of the memory. It does not progress into the older generations of memory and thus takes less of the garbage collector's cycle time.2.  Since the object is nullified immediately and no other reference to it exists in some other collection object in the application, the job of the garbage collector is easier. In other words, the garbage collector does not have to keep track of an object that exists in a collection.

When using data pools, it's wise to use the parameters "-XX:+UseConcMarkSweepGC -XX:MaxTenuringThreshold=0 -XX:SurvivorRatio=128" on the command line. These tell the JVM to move objects on the first sweep from the new generation to the old. It commands the JVM to use the concurrent mark sweep algorithm on the old generation that proves more efficient since it works "concurrently" for a multi-processor platform. For single processor machines, try the "-Xincgc" option. We've seen those long garbage collector pauses, which occur after hours of execution, disappear using this technique and these parameters. Performing well in the long run is the true benefit of this last step.

Performance ResultsTypically, most engineers want proof before changing their approach to designing and coding. Why not? Since we're now suggesting that even Java programmers should be concerned about resource allocation, it better be worth it! Once upon a time, assembly language and C programmers spent time tweaking memory and register usage to improve performance. This step was necessary. Now, as higher-level object-oriented programmers we may disdain this thought. This pattern has dared to imply that such considerations, although not as low level as registers and memory addresses (instead at the object level), are still necessary for high-performance coding. Can it be true?

The underlying premise is that if you know how your engine works, you can drive it better to obtain optimal performance and endurance. This is as true for my 1985 300TD (Mercedes, five cylinder, turbo diesel station wagon) with 265,000 miles as for my Java code running on a HotSpot VM. For instance, knowing that a diesel's optimal performance is when the engine is warm since it relies on compression for power, I let my car warm up before I "push it." Similarly, I don't overload the vehicle with the tons of stuff I could place in the tailgate. HotSpot fits the analogy. Performance improves after the VM "warms up" and compiles the HotSpot code into the native language. I also keep my memory footprint lean and light. The comparison breaks down after awhile, but the basic truth does not change. You can use a system the best when you understand how it works.

Our challenge to you is to take statistics before and after implementing this pattern on just a small portion of your code. Please recognize that the gain will be best exemplified when your application is scaled upward. In other words, the heavier the load on the system, the better the results.

The following statistics were taken after the pattern was applied. They are charted as:1.  Limited nullify method invocation is used where only the incoming messages are not "nullified." (The remainder of the application from which the statistics were taken was left intact with a very lean memory usage.) There is no forced garbage collection.2.  Nullify method invocation and forced garbage collection is utilized.

The test environment is a Microsoft Windows 2000 X86 Family 15 Model 2 Stepping 4 Genuine Intel ~1794MHz laptop running the BEA WebLogic Server 7.0 with Service Pack 7.1 with a physical memory size of 523,704KB. The Java Message Server (JMS server), a track generator, and a tactical display are all running on the same laptop over the local developer network (MAGIC). The server makes no optimizations, even though each application resides locally. The JVMs are treated as if they were distributed across the network. They're running on the J2SE 1.4.1 release.

The test target application is a Java Swing Tactical Display with full panning, zooming, and track-hooking capabilities. It receives bundles of tracks via the Java Message Service that are displayed at their proper location on the given image. Each track is approximately 88 bytes and the overall container size is about 70 bytes. This byte measurement does not include all the additional class information that's also sent during serialization. The container is the message that holds an array of tracks that contains information such as time and number of tracks. For our tests, the tracks are sent at a 1Hz rate. Twenty sets of data are captured.

To illustrate the test environment, a screen capture of a 5,000 track load (4,999 tracks plus the ship) is shown in Figure 1. The background shows tracks rendered with the Military Standard 2525B symbology over an image of the Middle East. The small window titled "Track Generator Desktop" is a minimized window showing the parameters of the test set through the track generator application. Notice that 45 messages had been sent at the time of the screen capture. Directly beneath this window sits the Windows Task Manager. Note that the CPU utilization is at 83%. At first this doesn't seem that bad. But at that rate, there isn't much room for the user to begin zooming, panning, hooking tracks, and so on. The final command window to the right is that of the tactical display application. The parameter "-verbose:gc" is placed on the Java command line (java -verbose:gc myMainApplication.class). The VM is performing the listed garbage collection at its own rate, not by command of the application.

The final test of 10,000 tracks performed extremely poorly. The system does not scale; the CPU is pegged. At this point most engineers may jeer at Java again. Let's take another look after implementing the pattern.

After implementation, where the nullify methods are invoked properly and garbage collection is requested at a periodic interval (2Hz), dramatic improvements are realized. The last test of 10,000 tracks proves that the processor still has plenty of room to do more work. In other words, the pattern scales very well.

Performance SummaryThe pattern to help control garbage collection pauses most definitely improves the overall performance of the application. Notice how well the pattern scales under the heavier track loads in the performance bar chart in Figure 2. The darker middle bar shows the processor utilization at each level of the message (track) load. As the message traffic increases, the processor utilization grows more slowly than without the pattern. The last light-colored bar shows the improved performance. The main strength of the pattern is how well it scales under heavy message loads.

There is another subtle strength to the pattern. This one is difficult to measure since it requires very long-lived tests. If Step 3 is faithfully followed, those horribly long garbage collection pauses that occur after hours of running disappear. This is a key benefit to the pattern since most of our applications are designed to run "forever."

We're confident that many other Java applications would benefit from implementing this very simple pattern.

The steps to control garbage collection pauses are:1.  Set all objects that are no longer in use to null and make sure they're not left within some collection. "Nullify" objects.2.  Force garbage collection to occur both:

  • After some major memory-intense operation (e.g., scaling an image)
  • At a periodic rate that provides the best performance for your application3.  Save long-lived data in a persistent data area if feasible or in a pool of data and use the appropriate garbage collector algorithm.

    By following these three simple steps, you'll avoid those bothersome garbage collection pauses and enjoy all the benefits of the Java environment. It's time the Java environment was fully utilized in mission-critical display systems.

    References

  • Gupta, A., and Doyle, M. "Turbo-Charging the Java HotSpot Virtual Machine, v1.4.x to Improve the Performance and Scalability of Application Servers": http://developer.java.sun.com/developer/ technicalArticles/Programming/turbo/
  • JSR 1, Real-Time Specification for Java: http://jcp.org/en/jsr/detail?id=1
  • Java HotSpot VM options: http://java.sun.com/docs/hotspot/VMOptions.html
  • Java Specification Request for JCache: http://jcp.org/en/jsr/detail?id=107


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