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000-633 Object Oriented Analysis and Design - Part 1

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000-633 exam Dumps Source : Object Oriented Analysis and Design - Part 1

Test Code : 000-633
Test Name : Object Oriented Analysis and Design - Part 1
Vendor Name : IBM
Q&A : 105 Real Questions

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IBM Object Oriented Analysis and

Object-Oriented analysis and Design | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

This chapter is from the publication 

evaluation emphasizes an investigation of the difficulty and necessities, in place of an answer. for instance, if a new on-line trading device is preferred, how will or not it's used? What are its features?

"evaluation" is a large term, most suitable qualified, as in necessities analysis (an investigation of the requirements) or object-oriented evaluation (an investigation of the domain objects).

Design emphasizes a conceptual solution (in utility and hardware) that fulfills the requirements, in place of its implementation. as an example, an outline of a database schema and software objects. Design ideas frequently exclude low-stage or "obtrusive" particulars—glaring to the intended buyers. sooner or later, designs will also be implemented, and the implementation (akin to code) expresses the actual and comprehensive realized design.

As with analysis, the term is most useful certified, as in object-oriented design or database design.

advantageous evaluation and design were summarized in the phrase do the appropriate thing (evaluation), and do the element right (design).


An method to Assessing and evaluating Object-Oriented evaluation strategies | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

In-Depth

An method to Assessing and comparing Object-Oriented evaluation strategies

Many object-oriented evaluation (OOA) strategies are now accessible for use in device evaluation. The methods have many average essential features. for instance, they build analysis models for techniques and provide an analysis system for building these models. despite the fact, the details of the facets may also be described in a different way on account of the diverse goals of analyzing programs with object orientation. The details ought to be assessed with a purpose to bear in mind the facets accurately in the system, or the points need to be compared precisely in diverse strategies. this text gifts a framework as a device for assessing the particulars of the normal fundamental aspects in particular person OOA methods, and explores the dependency of the points.

Many object-oriented evaluation (OOA) methods are actually purchasable for analyzing and modeling a device with objects. My colleagues and that i have used some of them in case reports 1, 2 and also analyzed a couple of OOA strategies in detail to locate how they help OOA. Our analysis found that each one of those OOA strategies have seven an identical standard features: evaluation models, modeling ideas, primary principles, analysis strategies, evaluation procedures, requirement sources, and evaluation deliverables. These aspects exist with based relationships; that's, a feature may additionally rely on different aspects (see Fig. 1). All of those fundamental facets guide the ordinary intention of OOA strategies: to construct the article evaluation model for a gadget through an evaluation manner.

however, the methods might also define these essential facets with distinct particulars, as they are looking to build their own evaluation models for a system. as an example, the article Modeling technique (OMT) three defines the analysis for a gadget model with three small models (object, dynamic, and useful models). The Coad/Yourdon formulation 4 and the Wirfs-Brock components 5 outline just one mannequin for a equipment. yet another instance is that OMT three defines a category with attributes while the Wirfs-Brock formula four defines a class without attributes. hence, to take note the area of expertise of an OOA system and its precise ameliorations from other OOA methods, we must find out how the method defines particulars of the facets and also how the facets depend on each and every other. in addition, we may still find out to what extent the similarities and differences between OOA methods are true, in preference to merely obvious, once we compare the methods in response to their elements.

Some comparative experiences of OO strategies were executed (e.g., Arnold et al., 6 de Champeaux and Faure, 7 Fowler, 8 and Monarchi and Puhr 9 ) during the past primarily based upon aspects corresponding to these outlined. youngsters, the studios or researchers put little emphasis on examining the details of the features and the relationships between the elements in particular person OOA strategies. we have created a framework that contains a group of commonplace basic aspects of OOA strategies and assesses the features with a based structure, in order that an OOA formulation will also be realized, analyzed, and assessed in the course of the particulars of its features.

THE FRAMEWORKThe framework used for assessing the general simple points and their dependencies in individual OOA strategies is proven in determine 2. in the diagram, each rectangular container represents a function; each and every solid line represents a elegant relationship between two elements; and each arrow represents a probable requirement aid of analysis.

The typical elementary features covered by the framework are specified as follows:

  • The basic precept: simple legal guidelines of analysis.
  • The evaluation model: a view and representation of a equipment. different types of models could be built through a way to symbolize distinct views and elements of the device one after the other. A model is defined at the side of a set of modeling ideas. each modeling idea is an summary theory at the back of the company of evaluation; that's, it abstracts and specifies a particular piece of the gadget.
  • The Notation: a set of diagrammatic or textual symbols used to symbolize a model.
  • the strategy of OOA: a technique for using the process of analysis.
  • The source of Requirement: the particulars of an analyzed device.
  • The manner of OOA: a method of constructing the model step by step. each step may still provide guidelines and criteria for building the correct mannequin as it should be.
  • The Deliverable of analysis: the product generated through evaluation.
  • as an instance, table 1 indicates the primary elements of OMT three recognized the use of the framework.

    The framework additionally hyperlinks the facets by way of their based relationships (represented through solid lines). as an instance, the notation is dependent upon the modeling ideas to be able to characterize them. The system of OOA is dependent upon the mannequin, as the procedure has to construct the model and the deliverable includes the model. The technique of OOA depends on the method of OOA since it is pushed by means of a tactic of OOA , as an example, a data-pushed tactic creates the system to model objects and their attributes first, and a method-pushed tactic drives the process to mannequin objects and their operations first. Such elegant relationships between the facets can display how the details of a characteristic may affect the particulars of an additional feature.

    THE procedure OF ASSESSING OOA methods the usage of THE FRAMEWORKWe illustrate a process of the usage of the framework to investigate an OOA method in determine 3. each container in the diagram shows a step of the method. The strong arrows characterize the order of the steps. The dashed arrows symbolize the feature flows between the steps and the framework. In each and every step, a group of guidance is provided in accordance with the framework, which explores and assesses the particulars—corresponding to definitions—of the essential features of the OOA formulation. The answers are found in line with the tasks throughout the evaluation.

    In right here section, we clarify particulars of each and every step in the technique. OOA methods numbered from 1–10 (see desk 2) are assessed as examples of the usage of the framework throughout the process.

    determine simple concepts.

  • Which basic concepts does the OOA formulation use for OOA? How are they described?

    Many OOA methods books introduce and explain the primary principles employed by using the methods. You must be privy to the definition or meaning of each principle in every OOA components, as a precept could be termed otherwise or a time period may name just a few ideas with different meanings in diverse OOA methods. as an instance, table three lists the simple principles employed by the ten OOA methods.

    The terms exhibit that some principles corresponding to abstraction are employed by a couple of formula and others corresponding to area are simplest employed via one. despite the fact, the meanings of the ideas tell which time period represents the equal thing and which does not. as an example:

  • The abstraction principle refers to several types of abstraction within the strategies (see Step 2).
  • The encapsulation principle also skill counsel hiding in the methods apart from with the Wirfs-Brock formulation and HOOD: Encapsulation capability the separation of exterior facets of an object from its inner ones, and simplest exterior features may also be seen through other objects. both methods outline "encapsulation" and "advice hiding" otherwise: Encapsulation skill the combination of the statistics and the operations that have an effect on statistics in objects, and counsel hiding ability to conceal the interior details of an object from different objects.
  • The inheritance precept has the equal which means within the nine strategies that use it. (HOOD doesn't use this principle.)
  • the size precept within the Coad/Yourdon formulation is akin to the domain precept in Syntropy: Scale is a precept that courses a reader through a huge model by using partitioning it into smaller components. area is a means of dividing a equipment description, notwithstanding now not of gadget execution, into smaller parts, i.e., subsystem descriptions.
  • Why does the formula choose to use such principles?

    distinctive OOA strategies may additionally decide to make use of diverse simple concepts for distinctive factors. as an instance, the Wirfs-Brock formula analyzes the useful connections as opposed to the facts relationships between objects. OMT focuses on the object constitution but not on the messages flowing between objects. therefore, the principle "emphasis on object constitution" is used by OMT and the principle "verbal exchange with messages" is used with the aid of the Wirfs-Brock formulation. Answering this query helps take into account the goals of the formulation more exactly and deeply.


  • Object-Oriented evaluation And Design — Introduction (part 1) | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    The theory Of Object-Orientation

    Object-orientation is what’s called a programming paradigm. It’s no longer a language itself but a set of concepts that is supported by using many languages.

    if you aren’t standard with the ideas of object-orientation, you may take a look at the Story of Object-Oriented Programming.

    If every little thing we do in these languages is object-oriented, it capacity, we're oriented or concentrated round objects.

    Now in an object-oriented language, this one large application will instead be break up apart into self contained objects, well-nigh like having a number of mini-courses, each object representing a special a part of the software.

    and every object consists of its personal data and its own logic, and they communicate between themselves.

    These objects aren’t random. They signify the manner you talk and believe concerning the difficulty you try to clear up on your true existence.

    They characterize things like personnel, images, bank debts, spaceships, asteroids, video section, audio data, or something exists to your software.

    Object-Oriented evaluation And Design (OOAD)

    It’s a structured method for inspecting, designing a gadget with the aid of making use of the article-oriented ideas, and advance a collection of graphical gadget models right through the development lifestyles cycle of the application.

    OOAD within the SDLC

    The software life cycle is customarily divided up into levels going from summary descriptions of the problem to designs then to code and testing and finally to deployment.

    The earliest tiers of this method are evaluation (requirements) and design.

    The big difference between analysis and design is often described as “what Vs how”.

    In evaluation builders work with clients and domain experts to outline what the system is meant to do. Implementation particulars are supposed to be mostly or absolutely ignored at this phase.

    The intention of the analysis phase is to create a mannequin of the system regardless of constraints reminiscent of acceptable technology. here's customarily done by way of use situations and summary definition of probably the most crucial objects using conceptual model.

    The design phase refines the evaluation model and applies the vital expertise and different implementation constrains.

    It specializes in describing the objects, their attributes, conduct, and interactions. The design mannequin may still have all of the details required in order that programmers can put in force the design in code.

    They’re highest quality conducted in an iterative and incremental utility methodologies. So, the actions of OOAD and the developed fashions aren’t achieved as soon as, we are able to revisit and refine these steps invariably.

    Object-Oriented evaluation

    within the object-oriented analysis, we …

  • Elicit requirements: outline what does the application deserve to do, and what’s the issue the software making an attempt to resolve.
  • Specify requirements: Describe the requirements, constantly, the usage of use circumstances (and situations) or user reviews.
  • Conceptual model: identify the essential objects, refine them, and define their relationships and behavior and draw them in an easy diagram.
  • We’re no longer going to cover the primary two activities, simply the last one. These are already defined in element in requirements Engineering.

    Object-Oriented Design

    The analysis phase identifies the objects, their relationship, and habits the usage of the conceptual mannequin (an abstract definition for the objects).

    whereas in design phase, we describe these objects (by means of developing type diagram from conceptual diagram — continually mapping conceptual mannequin to classification diagram), their attributes, habits, and interactions.

    besides applying the utility design concepts and patterns which could be lined in later tutorials.

    The enter for object-oriented design is supplied by using the output of object-oriented analysis. but, evaluation and design can also happen in parallel, and the outcomes of 1 pastime will also be used by way of the other.

    in the object-oriented design, we …

  • Describe the courses and their relationships the use of type diagram.
  • Describe the interplay between the objects using sequence diagram.
  • follow utility design concepts and design patterns.
  • a class diagram gives a visual representation of the courses you want. And here is where you get to be in fact particular about object-oriented ideas like inheritance and polymorphism.

    Describing the interactions between these objects allows you to better bear in mind the tasks of the diverse objects, the behaviors they deserve to have.

    — other diagrams

    there are many other diagrams we will use to model the gadget from distinctive perspectives; interactions between objects, constitution of the device, or the conduct of the device and the way it responds to routine.

    It’s at all times about determining the correct diagram for the correct want. you should definitely understand which diagrams may be constructive when brooding about or discussing a circumstance that isn’t clear.

    device modeling and the distinct fashions we are able to use can be discussed subsequent.

    device Modeling

    gadget modeling is the manner of establishing fashions of the equipment, with each and every mannequin representing a special views of that device.

    probably the most critical element a few equipment model is that it leaves out element; It’s an summary illustration of the gadget.

    The models are usually in response to graphical notation, which is almost always based on the notations within the Unified Modeling Language (UML). other fashions of the system like mathematical mannequin; a detailed equipment description.

    fashions are used all the way through the analysis method to support to elicit the necessities, during the design technique to describe the equipment to engineers, and after implementation to document the gadget constitution and operation.

    diverse views

    We can also develop a model to represent the system from distinct perspectives.

  • external, where you model the context or the environment of the device.
  • interplay, where you model the interplay between add-ons of a device, or between a device and different methods.
  • Structural, where you model the corporation of the device, or the constitution of the statistics being processed via the equipment.
  • Behavioral, the place you mannequin the dynamic behavior of the device and the way it respond to movements.
  • Unified Modeling Language (UML)

    The unified modeling language turn into the regular modeling language for object-oriented modeling. It has many diagrams, youngsters, the most diagrams which are conventional are:

  • Use case diagram: It indicates the interaction between a equipment and it’s environment (users or programs) within a selected circumstance.
  • category diagram: It suggests the distinct objects, their relationship, their behaviors, and attributes.
  • Sequence diagram: It indicates the interactions between the diverse objects in the equipment, and between actors and the objects in a gadget.
  • State computer diagram: It indicates how the equipment reply to external and internal routine.
  • exercise diagram: It indicates the flow of the statistics between the procedures in the system.
  • which you could do diagramming work on paper or on a whiteboard, at the least in the preliminary levels of a assignment. but there are some diagramming tools with a view to assist you to draw these UML diagrams.


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    Object Oriented Analysis and Design - Part 1

    Pass 4 sure 000-633 dumps | Killexams.com 000-633 real questions | [HOSTED-SITE]

    Object-Oriented Analysis and Design (Part 1) | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Who does this thing? Does it have any benefit? If I do this, will my boss think that I am wasting my time or making excuses to not work? Have these thoughts ever come to your mind when you were desperate to properly design your next software?

    It is also possible that you have tried designing some piece of software before, but you found that it was too just time-consuming and it had no benefits. But throughout your career, you might have had these recurring thoughts that you should learn more about design patterns, mastering MVC, and designing something reusable, modular, and easy to read.

    In this multi-part article series, I will cover the basics about how you can properly design your next software even if you have failed last time.

    What Will You Learn?
  • Why your last design attempt failed
  • How to handle your manager/boss when you wanted to design
  • How to succeed in designing
  • The software development process
  • What is object-oriented analysis?
  • What is object-oriented design?
  • What are design patterns?
  • And anything in between that is confusing you
  • What Will You Not Learn?
  • You will not learn the syntax of Java, C#, or C++
  • You will not learn the difference between functions and variables
  • You will not be overwhelmed with a list of design patterns
  • You will not learn object-oriented programming here
  • "What?" you might say after reading the last line. "No object oriented programming? Then why am I wasting my time here?" This post is about object-oriented design, but not programming. We all know about object-oriented programming, i.e., how to write a class in C#.

    As one quote says, “Knowing how to hold a hammer does not make you an architect.” True? Similarly, learning Java programming will not make you a good software engineer (or software programmer or developer or software architect).

    Background

    During the initial years of my undergraduate programs, I thought designing was the same as writing an algorithm because I did not study object-oriented programming. Later, when I learned about object-oriented programming, I thought someone could conquer the world if they just learned everything that is there in 1,000 pages of a Deitel and Deitel book.

    object oriented programming book

    But that was not the case. I could not write a program without tearing my hair apart. I also noticed that if I opened my program again after six months, it looked like such a mystery that even Sherlock Holmes could not solve it.

    Then, in my fourth semester, I learned about object-oriented analysis and design as a subject. But unfortunately, the focus was on UML modeling. I thought that UML was a cool thing — you just generate some diagrams and hand them over to developers and they will come up with code using your designs (which will make you proud).

    But there was even an option in the UML modeling tool that our class was using at that time to automatically generate the code from your UML class diagrams. What a beauty, I thought. I could design using UML models and then generate the code, compile it, ship it to a customer, and get rich like Bill Gates. Awesome.

    UML

    Afterward, reality set in. I was never able to generate designs that were modular, easy to extend, and easy to understand (The code generated from these tools was never compiled, since it only generated stubs). Then, a period of chaos began.

    Later in my undergraduate study, I learned subjects related to software engineering, software architecture, software process models and software project management. But I was unable to fit all things together until very late.

    Still, I see people struggling with these concepts, unable to fit things together. They are overwhelmed with the unstructured data available to them. One key to comprehending all this information is to involve yourself in a project. The only output for that project should be a software that your users can use.

    In this post, I will share some basic object-oriented analysis and design principles, practices, and some of my experiences that you can use in your next project.

    Introduction to Software Development Process Models

    We all use some process or steps to develop software. The simplest process model that I use is just writing 6 lines on the back of a piece of paper and call them feature list. Then, I open Visual Studio and start writing code. That's it. It's a process model I used during my college years.

    I wrote my first commercial software (which had 1 user, who abandoned it later) using Visual Basic 6.0 in my second year of college using this process model.

    There are many software development process models that I have studied and applied throughout many projects.

    One process model (which is scolded by many authorities) is waterfall, which uses the process of gathering requirements, analysis, design, implementation, and testing.

    The problem with the waterfall process model is that you do all the things in the same exact sequence as written above. First, all the requirements are collected from the customers. A team analyzes requirements, then documents and prepares specifications for the design team. The design team then develops the design using the specification and hands over the design to the implementation team. The implementation team writes code with respect to the design. Finally, test team tests the software against the specifications.

    software process model

    Everything is done sequentially, and a lot of time is spent (months and even years) before the final product is shipped to the customer. Statistics tell us that when a product is shipped to the customer using waterfall process models, a huge number of customers rejected it = because it did not meet their requirements.

    You may have heard the phrase, “The customer is always right.” This truly applies to software development. If the customer does not like the final product, then all the effort (months and years) is wasted.

    To cater to this problem, there is another philosophy — iterative and evolutionary development. Based on this philosophy, there are many software development process models. Some examples are Scrum, extreme programming(XP), and Rational Unified Process. They are the Agile development processes.

    The concept of iterative development is simple. Software development is organized into a series of small projects called iterations. Each iteration has its analysis, design, implementation, and testing. At the end of each iteration, the customer input is taken. If a customer did not agree, then the loss is minimal (usually weeks) as compared to waterfall process model.

    Now you understand the basic difference between iterative and sequential process models. Many organizations now use iterative development process models, as the idea is to minimize waste (months vs. weeks).

    Why I Need to Understand Process Models

    For a long time, I believed that designing software was something like that: I design everything in the beginning and then, using this design, start coding. Then, once it compiles, I handed over the running software to the end user.

    It turns out that this is not the best approach. You will have to change your design strategy, which evolves over time. Therefore, the incremental and evolutionary process model is important to understand. Flawless design is a myth. After subsequent iterations, one may realize that his or her initial design sucks.

    Another point is that one should not design for all the requirements at the beginning. Make a detailed design map for the iteration you're currently working on.

    Therefore, the key takeaway is that you should use an iterative development process where the complete design is not done at the start of the project. Similarly, whatever you design will not perfect and will be changed or evolved during the lifecycle of the project.

    This ends the first article of this four-part series. In this article, I discussed the importance of process models in object-oriented design. I also mentioned the common misconception attached to UML.

    In part 2, you will learn the following

  • Difference between process and methodology

  • 2 most important object-oriented design principles that everyone should know

  • 1 advantage of OOP that every developer would love to have in his or her code

  • To learn more about object oriented programming visit here.


    Object-oriented design patterns in the kernel, part 1 | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

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    June 1, 2011

    This article was contributed by Neil Brown

    Despite the fact that the Linux Kernel is mostly written in C, it makes broad use of some techniques from the field of object-oriented programming. Developers wanting to use these object-oriented techniques receive little support or guidance from the language and so are left to fend for themselves. As is often the case, this is a double-edged sword. The developer has enough flexibility to do really cool things, and equally the flexibility to do really stupid things, and it isn't always clear at first glance which is which, or more accurately: where on the spectrum a particular approach sits.

    Instead of looking to the language to provide guidance, a software engineer must look to established practice to find out what works well and what is best avoided. Interpreting established practice is not always as easy as one might like and the effort, once made, is worth preserving. To preserve that effort on your author's part, this article brings another installment in an occasional series on Linux Kernel Design Patterns and attempts to set out - with examples - the design patterns in the Linux Kernel which effect an object-oriented style of programming.

    Rather than providing a brief introduction to the object-oriented style, tempting though that is, we will assume the reader has a basic knowledge of objects, classes, methods, inheritance, and similar terms. For those as yet unfamiliar with these, there are plenty of resources to be found elsewhere on the web.

    Over two weeks we will look for patterns in just two areas: method dispatch and data inheritance. Despite their apparent simplicity they lead to some rich veins for investigation. This first article will focus on method dispatch.

    Method Dispatch

    The large variety of styles of inheritance and rules for its usage in languages today seems to suggest that there is no uniform understanding of what "object-oriented" really means. The term is a bit like "love": everyone thinks they know what it means but when you get down to details people can find they have very different ideas. While what it means to be "oriented" might not be clear, what we mean by an "object" does seem to be uniformly agreed upon. It is simply an abstraction comprising both state and behavior. An object is like a record (Pascal) or struct (C), except that some of the names of members refer to functions which act on the other fields in the object. These function members are sometimes referred to a "methods".

    The most obvious way to implement objects in C is to declare a "struct" where some fields are pointers to functions which take a pointer to the struct itself as their first argument. The calling convention for method "foo" in object "bar" would simply be: bar->foo(bar, ...args); While this pattern is used in the Linux kernel it is not the dominant pattern so we will leave discussion of it until a little later.

    As methods (unlike state) are not normally changed on a per-object basis, a more common and only slightly less obvious approach is to collect all the methods for a particular class of objects into a separate structure, sometimes known as a "virtual function table" or vtable. The object then has a single pointer to this table rather than a separate pointer for each method, and consequently uses less memory.

    This then leads to our first pattern - a pure vtable being a structure which contains only function pointers where the first argument of each is a pointer to some other structure (the object type) which itself contains a pointer to this vtable. Some simple examples of this in the Linux kernel are the file_lock_operations structure which contains two function pointers each of which take a pointer to a struct file_lock, and the seq_operations vtable which contains four function pointers which each operate on a struct seq_file. These two examples display an obvious naming pattern - the structure holding a vtable is named for the structure holding the object (possibly abbreviated) followed by "_operations". While this pattern is common it is by no means universal. Around the time of 2.6.39 there are approximately 30 "*_operations" structures along with well over 100 "*_ops" structures, most if not all of which are vtables of some sort. There are also several structs such as struct mdk_personality which are essentially vtables but do not have particularly helpful names.

    Among these nearly 200 vtable structures there is plenty of variability and so plenty of scope to look for interesting patterns. In particular we can look for common variations from the "pure vtable" pattern described above and determine how these variations contribute to our understanding of object use in Linux.

    NULL function pointers

    The first observation is that some function pointers in some vtables are allowed to be NULL. Clearly trying to call such a function would be futile, so the code that calls into these methods generally contains an explicit test for the pointer being NULL. There are a few different reasons for these NULL pointers. Probably easiest to justify is the incremental development reason. Because of the way vtable structures are initialized, adding a new function pointer to the structure definition causes all existing table declarations to initialise that pointer to NULL. Thus it is possible to add a caller of the new method before any instance supports that method, and have it check for NULL and perform a default behavior. Then as incremental development continues those vtable instances which need it can get non-default methods.

    A recent example is commit 77af1b2641faf4 adding set_voltage_time_sel() to struct regulator_ops which acts on struct regulator_dev. Subsequent commit 42ab616afe8844 defines that method for a particular device. This is simply the most recent example of a very common theme.

    Another common reason is that certain methods are not particularly meaningful in certain cases so the calling code simply tests for NULL and returns an appropriate error when found. There are multiple examples of this in the virtual filesystem (VFS) layer. For instance, the create() function in inode_operations is only meaningful if the inode in question is a directory. So inode_operations structures for non-directories typically have NULL for the create() function (and many others) and the calling code in vfs_create() checks for NULL and returns -EACCES.

    A final reason that vtables sometimes contain NULL is that an element of functionality might be being transitioned from one interface to another. A good example of this is the ioctl() operation in file_operations. In 2.6.11, a new method, unlocked_ioctl() was added which was called without the big kernel lock held. In 2.6.36, when all drivers and filesystems had been converted to use unlocked_ioctl(), the original ioctl() was finally removed. During this transition a file system would typically define only one of two, leaving the other defaulting to NULL.

    A slightly more subtle example of this is read() and aio_read(), also in file_operations, and the corresponding write() and aio_write(). aio_read() was introduced to support asynchronous IO, and if it is provided the regular synchronous read() is not needed (it is effected using do_sync_read() which calls the aio_read() method). In this case there appears to be no intention of ever removing read() - it will remain for cases where async IO is not relevant such as special filesystems like procfs and sysfs. So it is still the case that only one of each pair need be defined by a filesystem, but it is not simply a transition, it is a long-term state.

    Though there seem to be several different reasons for a NULL function pointer, almost every case is an example of one simple pattern - that of providing a default implementation for the method. In the "incremental development" examples and the non-meaningful method case, this is fairly straightforward. e.g. the default for inode->create() is simply to return an error. In the interface transition case it is only slightly less obvious. The default for unlocked_ioctl() would be to take the kernel lock and then call the ioctl() method. The default for read() is exactly do_sync_read() and some filesystems such as ext3 actually provide this value explicitly rather than using "NULL" to indicate a default.

    With that in mind, a little reflection suggests that if the real goal is to provide a default, then maybe the best approach would be to explicitly give a default rather than using the circuitous route of using a default of NULL and interpreting it specially.

    While NULL is certainly the easiest value to provide as a default - as the C standard assures us that uninitialized members of a structure do get set to NULL - it is not very much harder to set a more meaningful default. I am indebted to LWN reader wahern for the observation that C99 allows fields in a structure to be initialized multiple times with only the final value taking effect and that this allows easy setting of default values such as by following the simple model:

    #define FOO_DEFAULTS .bar = default_bar, .baz = default_baz struct foo_operations my_foo = { FOO_DEFAULTS, .bar = my_bar, };

    This will declare my_foo with a predefined default value for baz and a localized value for bar. Thus for the small cost of defining a few "default" functions and including a "_DEFAULTS" entry to each declaration, the default value for any field can easily be chosen when the field is first created, and automatically included in every use of the structure.

    Not only are meaningful defaults easy to implement, they can lead to a more efficient implementation. In those cases where the function pointer actually is NULL it is probably faster to test and branch rather than to make an indirect function call. However the NULL case is very often the exception rather than the rule, and optimizing for an exception is not normal practice. In the more common case when the function pointer is not NULL, the test for NULL is simply a waste of code space and a waste of execution time. If we disallow NULLs we can make all call sites a little bit smaller and simpler.

    In general, any testing performed by the caller before calling a method can be seen as an instance of the "mid-layer mistake" discussed in a previous article. It shows that the mid-layer is making assumptions about the behavior of the lower level driver rather than simply giving the driver freedom to behave in whatever way is most suitable. This may not always be an expensive mistake, but it is still best avoided where possible. Nevertheless there is a clear pattern in the Linux kernel that pointers in vtables can sometimes be NULLable, typically though not always to enable a transition, and the call sites should in these cases test for NULL before proceeding with the call.

    The observant reader will have noticed a hole in the above logic denouncing the use NULL pointers for defaults. In the case where the default is the common case and where performance is paramount, the reasoning does not hold and a NULL pointer could well be justified. Naturally the Linux kernel provides an example of such a case for our examination.

    One of the data structures used by the VFS for caching filesystem information is the "dentry". A "dentry" represents a name in the filesystem, and so each "dentry" has a parent, being the directory containing it, and an "inode" representing the named file. The dentry is separate from the inode because a single file can have multiple names (so an "inode" can have multiple "dentry"s). There is a dentry_operations vtable with a number of operations including, for example, "d_compare" which will compare two names and "d_hash" which will generate a hash for the name to guide the storage of the "dentry" in a hash table. Most filesystems do not need this flexibility. They treat names as uninterpreted strings of bytes so the default compare and hash functions are the common case. A few filesystems define these to handle case-insensitive names but that is not the norm.

    Further, filename lookup is a common operation in Linux and so optimizing it is a priority. Thus these two operations appear to be good candidates where a test for NULL and an inlined default operation might be appropriate. What we find though is that when such an optimization is warranted it is not by itself enough. The code that calls d_compare() and d_hash() (and a couple of other dentry operations) does not test these functions for NULL directly. Rather they require that a few flag bits (DCACHE_OP_HASH, DCACHE_OP_COMPARE) in the "dentry" are set up to indicate whether the common default should be used, or whether the function should be called. As the flag field is likely to be in cache anyway, and the dentry_operations structure will often be not needed at all, this avoids a memory fetch in a hot path.

    So we find that the one case where using a NULL function pointer to indicate a default could be justified, it is not actually used; instead, a different, more efficient, mechanism is used to indicate that the default method is requested.

    Members other than function pointers

    While most vtable-like structures in the kernel contain exclusively function pointers, there are a significant minority that have non-function-pointer fields. Many of these appear on the surface quite arbitrary and a few closer inspections suggest that some of them result of poor design or bit-rot and their removal would only improve the code.

    There is one exception to the "functions only" pattern that occurs repeatedly and provides real value, and so is worth exploring. This pattern is seen in its most general form in struct mdk_personality which provides operations for a particular software RAID level. In particular this structure contains an "owner", a "name", and a "list". The "owner" is the module that provides the implementation. The "name" is a simple identifier: some vtables have string names, some have numeric names, and it is often called something different like "version", "family", "drvname", or "level". But conceptually it is still a name. In the present example there are two names, a string and a numeric "level".

    The "list", while part of the same functionality, is less common. The mdk_personality structure has a struct list_head, as does struct ts_ops. struct file_system_type has a simple pointer to the next struct file_system_type. The underlying idea here is that for any particular implementation of an interface (or "final" definition of a class) to be usable, it must be registered in some way so that it can be found. Further, once it has been found it must be possible to ensure that the module holding the implementation is not removed while it is in use.

    There seem to be nearly as many styles of registration against an interface in Linux as there are interfaces to register against, so finding strong patterns there would be a difficult task. However it is fairly common for a "vtable" to be treated as the primary handle on a particular implementation of an interface and to have an "owner" pointer which can be used to get a reference on the module which provides the implementation.

    So the pattern we find here is that a structure of function pointers used as a "vtable" for object method dispatch should normally contain only function pointers. Exceptions require clear justification. A common exception allows a module pointer and possible other fields such as a name and a list pointer. These fields are used to support the registration protocol for the particular interface. When there is no list pointer it is very likely that the entire vtable will be treated as read-only. In this case the vtable will often be declared as a const structure and so could even be stored in read-only memory.

    Combining Methods for different objects

    A final common deviation from the "pure vtable" pattern that we see in the Linux kernel occurs when the first argument to the function is not always the same object type. In a pure vtable which is referenced by a pointer in a particular data structure, the first argument of each function is exactly that data structure. What reason could there be for deviating from that pattern? It turns out that there are few, some more interesting than others.

    The simplest and least interesting explanation is that, for no apparent reason, the target data structure is listed elsewhere in the argument list. For example all functions in struct fb_ops take a struct fb_info. While in 18 cases that structure is the first argument, in five cases it is the last. There is nothing obviously wrong with this choice and it is unlikely to confuse developers. It is only a problem for data miners like your author who need to filter it out as an irrelevant pattern.

    A slight deviation on this pattern is seen in struct rfkill_ops where two functions take a struct rkfill but the third - set_block() - takes a void *data. Further investigation shows that this opaque data is exactly that which is stored in rfkill->data, so set_block() could easily be defined to take a struct rfkill and simply to follow the ->data link itself. This deviation is sufficiently non-obvious that it could conceivably confuse developers as well as data miners and so should be avoided.

    The next deviation in seen for example in platform_suspend_ops, oprofile_operations, security_operations and a few others. These take an odd assortment of arguments with no obvious pattern. However these are really very different sorts of vtable structures in that the object they belong to are singletons. There is only one active platform, only one profiler, only one security policy. Thus the "object" on which these operations act is part of the global state and so does not need to be included in the arguments of any functions.

    Having filtered these two patterns out as not being very interesting we are left with two that do serve to tell us something about object use in the kernel.

    quota_format_ops and export_operations are two different operations structures that operate on a variety of different data structures. In each case the apparent primary object (e.g. a struct super_block or a struct dentry) already has a vtable structure dedicated to it (such as super_operations or dentry_operations) and these new structures add new operations. In each case the new operations form a cohesive unit providing a related set of functionality - whether supporting disk quotas or NFS export. They don't all act on the same object simply because the functionality in question depends on a variety of objects.

    The best term from the language of object-oriented programming for this is probably the "mixin". Though the fit may not be perfect - depending on what your exact understanding of mixin is - the idea of bringing in a collection of functionality without using strict hierarchical inheritance is very close to the purpose of quota_format_ops and export_operations.

    Once we know to be on the lookout for mixins like these we can find quite a few more examples. The pattern to be alert for is not the one that led us here - an operations structure that operates on a variety of different objects - but rather the one we found where the functions in an "operations" structure operate on objects that already have their own "operations" structure. When an object has a large number of operations that are relevant and these operations naturally group into subsets, it makes a lot of sense to divide them into separate vtable-like structures. There are several examples of this in the networking code where for instance both tcp_congestion_ops and inet_connection_sock_af_ops operate (primarily) on a struct sock, which itself has already got a small set of dedicated operations.

    So the pattern of a "mixin" - at least as defined as a set of operations which apply to one or more objects without being the primary operations for those objects - is a pattern that is often found in the kernel and appears to be quite valuable in allowing better modularization of code.

    The last pattern which explains non-uniform function targets is probably the most interesting, particularly in its contrast to the obvious application of object-oriented programming style. Examples of this pattern abound with ata_port_operations, tty_operations, nfs_rpc_ops and atmdev_ops all appearing as useful examples. However we will focus primarily on some examples from the filesystem layer, particularly super_operations and inode_operations.

    There is a strong hierarchy of objects in the implementation of a filesystem where the filesystem - represented by a "super_block" - has a number of files (struct inode) which may have a number of names or links (struct dentry). Further each file might store data in the page cache (struct address_space) which comprises a number of individual pages (struct page). There is a sense in which all of these different objects belong to the filesystem as a whole. If a page needs to be loaded with data from a file, the filesystem knows how to do that, and it is probably the same mechanism for every page in every file. Where it isn't always the same, the filesystem knows that too. So we could conceivably store every operation on every one of these objects in the struct super_block, as it represents the filesystem and could know what to do in each case.

    In practice that extreme is not really helpful. It is quite likely that while there are similarities between the storage of a regular file and a directory, there are also important differences and being able to encode those differences in separate vtables can be helpful. Sometimes small symbolic links are stored directly in the inode while larger links are stored like the contents of a regular file. Having different readlink() operations for the two cases can make the code a lot more readable.

    While the extreme of every operation attached to the one central structure is not ideal, it is equally true that the opposite extreme is not ideal either. The struct page in Linux does not have a vtable pointer at all - in part because we want to keep the structure as small as possible because it is so populous. Rather the address_space_operations structure contains the operations that act on a page. Similarly the super_operations structure contains some operations that apply to inodes, and inode_operations contains some operations that apply to dentries.

    It is clearly possible to have operations structures attached to a parent of the target object - providing the target holds a reference to the parent, which it normally does - though it is not quite so clear that it is always beneficial. In the case of struct page which avoids having a vtable pointer altogether the benefit is clear. In the case of struct inode which has its own vtable pointer, the benefit of having some operations (such as destroy_inode() or write_inode()) attached to the super_block is less clear.

    As there are several vtable structures where any given function pointer could be stored, the actual choice is in many cases little more than historical accident. Certainly the proliferation of struct dentry operations in inode_operations seems to be largely due to the fact that some of them used to act directly on the inode, but changes in the VFS eventually required this to change. For example in 2.1.78-pre1, each of link(), readlink(), followlink() (and some others which are now defunct) were changed from taking a struct inode to take a struct dentry instead. This set the scene for "dentry" operations to be in inode_operations, so when setattr and getattr were added for 2.3.48, it probably seemed completely natural to include them in inode_operations despite the fact that they acted primarily on a dentry.

    Possibly we could simplify things by getting rid of dentry_operations altogether. Some operations that act on dentries are already in inode_operations and super_operations - why not move them all there? While dentries are not as populous as struct page there are still a lot of them and removing the "d_op" field could save 5% of the memory used by that structure (on x86-64).

    With two exceptions, every active filesystem only has a single dentry operations structure in effect. Some filesystem implementations like "vfat" define two - e.g. one with case-sensitive matching and one with case-insensitive matching - but there is only one active per super-block. So it would seem that the operations in dentry_operations could be moved to super_operations, or at least accessed through "s_d_op". The two exceptions are ceph and procfs. These filesystems use different d_revalidate() operations in different parts of the filesystem and - in the case of procfs - different d_release() operations. The necessary distinctions could easily be made in per-superblock versions of these operations. Do these cases justify the 5% space cost? Arguably not.

    Directly embedded function pointers

    Finally it is appropriate to reflect on the alternate pattern mentioned at the start, where function pointers are stored directly in the object rather than in a separate vtable structure. This pattern can be seen in struct request_queue which has nine function pointers, struct efi which has ten function pointers, and struct sock which has six function pointers.

    The cost of embedded pointers is obviously space. When vtables are used, there is only one copy of the vtable and multiple copies of an object (in most cases) so if more than one function pointer is needed, a vtable would save space. The cost of a vtable is an extra memory reference, though cache might reduce much of this cost in some cases. A vtable also has a cost of flexibility. When each object needs exactly the same set of operations a vtable is good, but if there is a need to individually tailor some of the operations for each object, then embedded function pointer can provide that flexibility. This is illustrated quite nicely by the comment with "zoom_video" in struct pcmcia_socket

    /* Zoom video behaviour is so chip specific its not worth adding this to _ops */

    So where objects are not very populous, where the list of function pointers is small, and where multiple mixins are needed, embedded function pointers are used instead of a separate vtable.

    Method Dispatch Summary

    If we combine all the pattern elements that we have found in Linux we find that:

    Method pointers that operate on a particular type of object are normally collected in a vtable associated directly with that object, though they can also appear:

  • In a mixin vtable that collects related functionality which may be selectable independently of the base type of the object.
  • In the vtable for a "parent" object when doing so avoids the need for a vtable pointer in a populous object
  • Directly in the object when there are few method pointers, or they need to be individually tailored to the particular object.
  • These vtables rarely contain anything other than function pointers, though fields needed to register the object class can be appropriate. Allowing these function pointers to be NULL is a common but not necessarily ideal technique for handling defaults.

    So in exploring the Linux Kernel code we have found that even though it is not written in an object-oriented language, it certainly contains objects, classes (represented as vtables), and even mixins. It also contains concepts not normally found in object-oriented languages such as delegating object methods to a "parent" object.

    Hopefully understanding these different patterns and the reasons for choosing between them can lead to more uniform application of the patterns across the kernel, and hence make it easier for a newcomer to understand which pattern is being followed. In the second part of our examination of object oriented patterns we will explore the various ways that data inheritance is achieved in the Linux kernel and discuss the strengths and weaknesses of each approach so as to see where each is most appropriate.

    (Log in to post comments)

    Java and Object-Oriented Programming | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    This chapter is from the book 

    Many seasoned Java developers will scoff at the fact that this section even exists in this book. It is here for two very important reasons. The first is that I continually run across Java applications built with a procedural mind-set. The fact that you know Java doesn't mean that you have the ability to transform that knowledge into well-designed object-oriented systems. As both an instructor and consultant, I see many data-processing shops send COBOL and/or Visual Basic developers to a three-day class on UML and a five-day class on Java and expect miracles. Case in point: I was recently asked to review a Java application to assess its design architecture and found that it had only two classes—SystemController and ScreenController—which contained over 70,000 lines of Java code.

    The second reason for the emphasis on how the language maps to object-oriented principles is that people like language comparisons and how they stack up to their counterparts. To appease those that live and die by language comparisons, let's put Java under the scrutiny of what constitutes an object-oriented language.

    No definitive definition of what makes a language object-oriented is globally accepted. However, a common set of criteria I personally find useful is that the language must support the following:

  • Classes
  • Complex types (Java reference types)
  • Message passing
  • Encapsulation
  • Inheritance
  • Polymorphism
  • These are discussed in the next subsections.

    Java and Classes

    Java allows classes to be defined. There are no stray functions floating around in Java. A class is a static template that contains the defined structure (attributes) and behavior (operations) of a real-world entity in the application domain. At runtime, the class is instantiated, or brought to life, as an object born in the image of that class. In my seminars, when several folks new to the object world are in attendance, I often use the analogy of a cookie cutter. The cookie cutter is merely the template used to stamp out what will become individually decorated and unique cookies. The cookie cutter is the class; the unique blue, green, and yellow gingerbread man is the object (which I trust supports a bite operation).

    Java exposes the class to potential outside users through its public interface. A public interface consists of the signatures of the public operations supported by the class. A signature is the operation name and its input parameter types (the return type, if any, is not part of the operation's signature).

    Good programming practice encourages developers to declare all attributes as private and allow access to them only via operations. As with most other languages, however, this is not enforced in Java. Figure 2-1 outlines the concept of a class and its interface.

    FIGURE 2-1 Public interface of a class

    The figure uses a common eggshell metaphor to describe the concept of the class's interface, as well as encapsulation. The internal details of the class are hidden from the outside via a well-defined interface. In this case, only four operations are exposed in the classes interface (Operation_A, B, C, and D). The other attributes and operations are protected from the outside world. Actually, to the outside world, it's as if they don't even exist.

    Suppose you want to create an Order class in Java that has three attributes—orderNumber, orderDate, and orderTotal—and two operations—calcTotalValue() and getInfo(). The class definition could look like this:

    /** * Listing 1 * This is the Order class for the Java/UML book */ package com.jacksonreed; import java.util.*; public class Order { private Date orderDate; private long orderNumber; private long orderTotal; public Order() { } public boolean getInfo() { return true; } public long calcTotalValue() { return 0; } public Date getOrderDate() { return orderDate; } public void setOrderDate(Date aOrderDate) { orderDate = aOrderDate; } public long getOrderNumber() { return orderNumber; } public void setOrderNumber(long aOrderNumber) { orderNumber = aOrderNumber; } public long getOrderTotal() { return orderTotal; } public void setOrderTotal(long aOrderTotal) { orderTotal = aOrderTotal; } public static void main(String[] args) { Order order = new Order(); System.out.println("instantiated Order"); System.out.println(order.getClass().getName()); System.out.println(order.calcTotalValue()); try { Thread.currentThread().sleep(5*1000); } catch(InterruptedException e) {} } }

    A few things are notable about the first bit of Java code presented in this book. Notice that each of the three attributes has a get and a set operation to allow for the retrieval and setting of the Order object's properties. Although doing so is not required, it is common practice to provide these accessor-type operations for all attributes defined in a class. In addition, if the Order class ever wanted to be a JavaBean, it would have to have "getters and setters" defined in this way.

    Some of the method code in the main() operation does a few things of note. Of interest is that a try block exists at the end of the operation that puts the current thread to sleep for a bit. This is to allow the console display to freeze so that you can see the results.

    If you type in this class and then compile it and execute it in your favorite development tool or from the command prompt with

    javac order.java //* to compile it java order //* to run it

    you should get results that look like this:

    instantiated Order com.jacksonreed.Order 0

    NOTE

    Going forward, I promise you will see no code samples with class, operation, or attribute names of foo, bar, or foobar.

    More on Java and Classes

    A class can also have what are called class-level operations and attributes. Java supports these with the static keyword. This keyword would go right after the visibility (public, private, protected) component of the operation or attribute. Static operations and attributes are needed to invoke either a service of the class before any real instances of that class are instantiated or a service that doesn't directly apply to any of the instances. The classic example of a static operation is the Java constructor. The constructor is what is called when an object is created with the New keyword. Perhaps a more business-focused example is an operation that retrieves a list of Customer instances based on particular search criteria.

    A class-level attribute can be used to store information that all instances of that class may access. This attribute might be, for example, a count of the number of objects currently instantiated or a property about Customer that all instances might need to reference.

    Java and Complex Types (Java Reference Types)

    A complex type, which in Java is called a reference type, allows variables typed as something other than primitive types (e.g., int and boolean) to be declared. In Java, these are called reference types. In object-oriented systems, variables that are "of" a particular class, such as Order, Customer, or Invoice, must be defined. Taken a step further, Order could consist of other class instances, such as OrderHeader and OrderLine.

    In Java, you can define different variables that are references to runtime objects of a particular class type:

    Public Order myOrder; Public Customer myCustomer; Public Invoice myInvoice;

    Such variables can then be used to store actual object instances and subsequently to serve as recipients of messages sent by other objects. In the previous code fragment, the variable myOrder is an instance of Order. After the myOrder object is created, a message can be sent to it and myOrder will respond, provided that the operation is supported by myOrder's interface.

    Java and Message Passing

    Central to any object-oriented language is the ability to pass messages between objects. In later chapters you will see that work is done in a system only by objects that collaborate (by sending messages) to accomplish a goal (which is specified in a use-case) of the system.

    Java doesn't allow stray functions floating around that are not attached to a class. In fact, Java demands this. Unfortunately, as my previous story suggested, just saying that a language requires everything to be packaged in classes doesn't mean that the class design will be robust, let alone correct.

    Java supports message passing, which is central to the use of Java's object-oriented features. The format closely resembles the syntax of other languages, such as C++ and Visual Basic. In the following code fragment, assume that a variable called myCustomer, of type Customer, is defined and that an operation called calcTotalValue() is defined for Customer. Then the calcTotalValue() message being sent to the myCustomer object in Java would look like this:

    myCustomer.calcTotalValue();

    Many developers feel that, in any other structured language, this is just a fancy way of calling a procedure. Calling a procedure and sending a message are similar in that, once invoked, both a procedure and a message implement a set of well-defined steps. However, a message differs in two ways:

  • There is a designated receiver, the object. Procedures have no designated receiver.

  • The interpretation of the message—that is, the how-to code (called the method) used to respond to the message—can vary with different receivers. This point will become more important later in the chapter, when polymorphism is reviewed.

  • The concepts presented in this book rely heavily on classes and the messaging that takes place between their instances, or objects.

    Java and Encapsulation

    Recall that a class exposes itself to the outside world via its public interface and that this should be done through exposure to operations only, and not attributes. Java supports encapsulation via its ability to declare both attributes and operations as public, private, or protected. In UML this is called visibility.

    Using the code from the previous Order example, suppose you want to set the value of the orderDate attribute. In this case, you should do so with an operation. An operation that gets or sets values is usually called a getter or a setter, respectively, and collectively such operations are called accessors. The local copy of the order date, orderDate, is declared private. (Actually, all attributes of a class should be declared private or protected, so that they are accessible only via operations exposed as public to the outside world.)

    Encapsulation provides some powerful capabilities. To the outside world, the design can hide how it derives its attribute values. If the orderTotal attribute is stored in the Order object, the corresponding get operation defined previously looks like this:

    public long getOrderTotal() { return orderTotal; }

    This snippet of code would be invoked if the following code were executed by an interested client:

    private long localTotal; private Order localOrder; localOrder = New Order(); localTotal = localOrder.getOrderTotal()

    However, suppose the attribute orderTotal isn't kept as a local value of the Order class, but rather is derived via another mechanism (perhaps messaging to its OrderLine objects). If Order contains OrderLine objects (declared as a Vector or ArrayList of OrderLine objects called myOrderLines) and OrderLine knows how to obtain its line totals via the message getOrderLineTotal(), then the corresponding get operation for orderTotal within Order will look like this:

    public long getOrderTotal() { long totalAmount=0; for (int i=0; i < myOrderLines.length; i++) { totalAmount = totalAmount + myOrderLines[i].getOrderLineTotal(); } return totalAmount; }

    This code cycles through the myOrderLines collection, which contains all the Orderline objects related to the Order object, sending the getOrderLineTotal() message to each of Order's OrderLine objects. The getOrderTotal() operation will be invoked if the following code is executed by an interested client:

    long localTotal; Order myOrder; myOrder = new Order(); localTotal = localOrder.getOrderTotal()

    Notice that the "client" code didn't change. To the outside world, the class still has an orderTotal attribute. However, you have hidden, or encapsulated, just how the value was obtained. This encapsulation allows the class's interface to remain the same (hey, I have an orderTotal that you can ask me about), while the class retains the flexibility to change its implementation in the future (sorry, how we do business has changed and now we must derive orderTotal like this). This kind of resiliency is one of the compelling business reasons to use an object-oriented programming language in general.

    Java and Inheritance

    The inclusion of inheritance is often the most cited reason for granting a language object-oriented status. There are two kinds of inheritance: interface and implementation. As we shall see, Java is one of the few languages that makes a clear distinction between the two.

    Interface inheritance (Figure 2-2) declares that a class that is inheriting an interface will be responsible for implementing all of the method code of each operation defined in that interface. Only the signatures of the interface are inherited; there is no method or how-to code.

    FIGURE 2-2 Interface inheritance

    Implementation inheritance (Figure 2-3) declares that a class that is inheriting an interface may, at its option, use the method code implementation already established for the interface. Alternatively, it may choose to implement its own version of the interface. In addition, the class inheriting the interface may extend that interface by adding its own operations and attributes.

    FIGURE 2-3 Implementation inheritance

    Each type of inheritance should be scrutinized and used in the appropriate setting. Interface inheritance is best used under the following conditions:

  • The base class presents a generic facility, such as a table lookup, or a derivation of system-specific information, such as operating-system semantics or unique algorithms.

  • The number of operations is small.

  • The base class has few, if any, attributes.

  • Classes realizing or implementing the interface are diverse, with little or no common code.

  • Implementation inheritance is best used under the following conditions:

  • The class in question is a domain class that is of primary interest to the application (i.e., not a utility or controller class).

  • The implementation is complex, with a large number of operations.

  • Many attributes and operations are common across specialized implementations of the base class.

  • Some practitioners contend that implementation inheritance leads to a symptom called the fragile base class problem. Chiefly, this term refers to the fact that over time, what were once common code and attributes in the superclass may not stay common as the business evolves. The result is that many, if not all, of the subclasses, override the behavior of the superclass. Worse yet, the subclasses may find themselves overriding the superclass, doing their own work, and then invoking the same operation again on the superclass. These practitioners espouse the idea of using only interface inheritance. Particularly with the advent of Java and its raising of the interface to a first-class type, the concept and usage of interface-based programming have gained tremendous momentum.

    As this book evolves, keeping in mind the pointers mentioned here when deciding between the two types of inheritance will be helpful. Examples of both constructs will be presented in the theme project that extends throughout this book.

    Implementation Inheritance

    Java supports implementation inheritance with the extends keyword. A class wanting to take advantage of implementation inheritance simply adds an extendsClassName statement to its class definition. To continue the previous example, suppose you have two different types of orders, both warranting their own subclasses: Commercial and Retail. You would still have an Order class (which isn't instantiated directly and which is called abstract). The previous fragment showed the code for the Order class. Following is the code for the Commercial class.

    package com.jacksonreed; public class Commercial extends Order { public Commercial() { } /* Unique Commercial code goes here */ }

    Implementation inheritance allows the Commercial class to utilize all attributes and operations defined in Order. This will be done automatically by the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) in conjunction with the language environment. In addition, implementation inheritance has the ability to override and/or extend any of Order's behavior. Commercial may also add completely new behavior if it so chooses.

    Interface Inheritance

    Java supports interface inheritance with the implements keyword. A class wanting to realize a given interface (actually being responsible for the method code) simply adds an implements InterfaceName statement. However, unlike extension of one class by another class, implementation of an interface by a class requires that the interface be specifically defined as an interface beforehand.

    Looking again at the previous example with Order, let's assume that this system will contain many classes—some built in this release, and some built in future releases—that need the ability to price themselves. Remember from earlier in this chapter that one of the indicators of using interface inheritance is the situation in which there is little or no common code but the functional intent of the classes is the same. This pricing functionality includes three services: the abilities to calculate tax, to calculate an extended price, and to calculate a total price. Let's call the operations for these services calcExtendedPrice(), calcTax(), and calcTotalPrice(), respectively, and assign them to a Java interface called IPrice. Sometimes interface names are prefixed with the letter I to distinguish them from other classes:

    package com.jacksonreed; interface IPrice { long calcExtendedPrice(); long calcTax(); long calcTotalPrice(); }

    Notice that the interface contains only operation signatures; it has no implementation code. It is up to other classes to implement the actual behavior of the operations. For the Order class to implement, or realize, the IPrice interface, it must include the implements keyword followed by the interface name:

    public class Order implements IPrice { }

    If you try to implement an interface without providing implementations for all of its operations, your class will not compile. Even if you don't want to implement any method code for some of the operations, you still must have the operations defined in your class.

    One very powerful aspect of interface inheritance is that a class can implement many interfaces at the same time. For example, Order could implement the IPrice interface and perhaps a search interface called ISearch. However, a Java class may extend from only one other class.

    Java and Polymorphism

    Polymorphism is one of those $50 words that dazzles the uninformed and sounds really impressive. In fact, polymorphism is one of the most powerful features of any object-oriented language.

    Roget's II: The New Thesaurus cross-references the term polymorphism to the main entry of variety. That will do for starters. Variety is the key to polymorphism. The Latin root for polymorphism means simply "many forms." Polymorphism applies to operations in the object-oriented context. So by combining these two thoughts, you could say that operations are polymorphic if they are identical (not just in name but also in signatures) but offer variety in their implementations.

    Polymorphism is the ability of two different classes each to have an operation that has the same signature, while having two very different forms of method code for the operation. Note that to take advantage of polymorphism, either an interface inheritance or an implementation inheritance relationship must be involved.

    In languages such as COBOL and FORTRAN, defining a routine to have the same name as another routine will cause a compile error. In object-oriented languages such as Java and C++, several classes might have an operation with the same signature. Such duplication is in fact encouraged because of the power and flexibility it brings to the design.

    As mentioned previously, the implements and extends keywords let the application take advantage of polymorphism. As we shall see, the sample project presented later in this book is an order system for a company called Remulak Productions. Remulak sells musical equipment, as well as other types of products. There will be a Product class, as well as Guitar, SheetMusic, and Supplies classes.

    Suppose, then, that differences exist in the fundamental algorithms used to determine the best time to reorder each type of product (called the economic order quantity, or EOQ). I don't want to let too much out of the bag at this point, but there will be an implementation inheritance relationship created with Product as the ancestor class (or superclass) and the other three classes as its descendants (or subclasses). The scenario that follows uses implementation inheritance with a polymorphic example. Note that interface inheritance would yield the same benefits and be implemented in the same fashion.

    To facilitate extensibility and be able to add new products in the future in a sort of plug-and-play fashion, we can make calcEOQ() polymorphic. To do this in Java, Product would define calcEOQ() as abstract, thereby informing any inheriting subclass that it must provide the implementation. A key concept behind polymorphism is this: A class implementing an interface or inheriting from an ancestor class can be treated as an instance of that ancestor class. In the case of a Java interface, the interface itself is a valid type.

    For example, assume that a collection of Product objects is defined as a property of the Inventory class. Inventory will support an operation, getAverageEOQ(), that needs to calculate the average economic order quantity for all products the company sells. To do this requires that we iterate over the collection of Product objects called myProducts to get each object's unique economic order quantity individually, with the goal of getting an average:

    public long getAverageEOQ() { long totalAmount=0; for (int i=0; i < myProducts.length; i++) { totalAmount = totalAmount + myProducts[i].calcEOQ(); } return totalAmount / myProducts.length; }

    But wait! First of all, how can Inventory have a collection of Product objects when the Product class is abstract (no instances were ever created on their own)? Remember the maxim from earlier: Any class implementing an interface or extending from an ancestor class can be treated as an instance of that interface or extended class. A Guitar "is a" Product, SheetMusic "is a" Product, and Supplies "is a" Product. So anywhere you reference Guitar, SheetMusic, or Supplies, you can substitute Product.

    Resident in the array myProducts within the Inventory class are individual concrete Guitar, SheetMusic, and Supplies objects. Java figures out dynamically which object should get its own unique calcEOQ() message. The beauty of this construct is that later, if you add a new type of Product—say, Organ—it will be totally transparent to the Inventory class. That class will still have a collection of Product types, but it will have four different ones instead of three, each of which will have its own unique implementation of the calcEOQ() operation.

    This is polymorphism at its best. At runtime, the class related to the object in question will be identified and the correct "variety" of the operation will be invoked. Polymorphism provides powerful extensibility features to the application by letting future unknown classes implement a predictable and well-conceived interface without affecting how other classes deal with that interface.



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