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000-302 DB2 9 Database and Application(R) Fundamentals - Academic Initiative

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000-302 exam Dumps Source : DB2 9 Database and Application(R) Fundamentals - Academic Initiative

Test Code : 000-302
Test Name : DB2 9 Database and Application(R) Fundamentals - Academic Initiative
Vendor Name : IBM
Q&A : 188 Real Questions

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IBM DB2 9 Database and

IBM Db2 query Optimization the usage of AI | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

In September 2018, IBM announced a brand new product, IBM Db2 AI for z/OS. This synthetic intelligence engine monitors facts entry patterns from executing SQL statements, makes use of machine studying algorithms to opt for superior patterns and passes this counsel to the Db2 query optimizer to be used by means of subsequent statements.

machine studying on the IBM z Platform

In may additionally of 2018, IBM announced edition 1.2 of its computing device studying for z/OS (MLz) product. here is a hybrid zServer and cloud software suite that ingests performance records, analyzes and builds models that signify the fitness reputation of a number of symptoms, displays them over time and provides precise-time scoring capabilities.

several facets of this product offering are aimed at assisting a group of model builders and managers. for example:

  • It helps assorted programming languages such as Python, Scala and R. This enables information modelers and scientists to make use of a language with which they are universal;
  • A graphical user interface called the visible mannequin Builder courses mannequin builders with out requiring incredibly-technical programming skills;
  • It contains distinctive dashboards for monitoring mannequin outcomes and scoring capabilities, as well as controlling the device configuration.
  • This computing device getting to know suite was at the beginning aimed toward zServer-primarily based analytics purposes. one of the crucial first obtrusive selections was zSystem performance monitoring and tuning. device administration Facility (SMF) records that are automatically generated through the working equipment give the raw information for system resource consumption corresponding to vital processor usage, I/O processing, reminiscence paging and so on. IBM MLz can collect and save these facts over time, and construct and teach fashions of system conduct, ranking these behaviors, identify patterns not with ease foreseen by way of humans, increase key performance indicators (KPIs) and then feed the model effects lower back into the equipment to affect device configuration alterations that can improve efficiency.

    The subsequent step turned into to enforce this suite to investigate Db2 performance statistics. One solution, called the IBM Db2 IT Operational Analytics (Db2 ITOA) solution template, applies the computer researching technology to Db2 operational records to benefit an figuring out of Db2 subsystem fitness. it might probably dynamically construct baselines for key efficiency warning signs, give a dashboard of these KPIs and give operational body of workers precise-time insight into Db2 operations.

    whereas popular Db2 subsystem performance is a crucial factor in general application fitness and performance, IBM estimates that the DBA guide workforce spends 25% or greater of its time, " ... combating entry course complications which cause performance degradation and repair have an impact on.". (See Reference 1).

    AI involves Db2

    trust the plight of contemporary DBAs in a Db2 environment. In modern-day IT world they have to help one or greater big records applications, cloud application and database features, application setting up and configuration, Db2 subsystem and application performance tuning, database definition and management, catastrophe recovery planning, and greater. question tuning has been in existence when you consider that the origins of the database, and DBAs are usually tasked with this as well.

    The heart of query direction analysis in Db2 is the Optimizer. It accepts SQL statements from purposes, verifies authority to entry the information, studies the locations of the objects to be accessed and develops a list of candidate records access paths. These access paths can encompass indexes, desk scans, a variety of desk be a part of strategies and others. in the statistics warehouse and big facts environments there are always additional decisions accessible. One of those is the existence of summary tables (from time to time called materialized question tables) that comprise pre-summarized or aggregated statistics, as a consequence allowing Db2 to keep away from re-aggregation processing. yet another choice is the starjoin entry route, regular in the information warehouse, the place the order of desk joins is modified for performance motives.

    The Optimizer then studies the candidate entry paths and chooses the access path, "with the lowest charge." can charge during this context means a weighted summation of aid usage together with CPU, I/O, memory and other resources. ultimately, the Optimizer takes the lowest can charge access course, outlets it in reminiscence (and, optionally, in the Db2 directory) and begins access direction execution.

    huge information and data warehouse operations now encompass application suites that allow the company analyst to make use of a graphical interface to construct and manipulate a miniature statistics model of the statistics they want to analyze. The applications then generate SQL statements in keeping with the clients’ requests.

    The issue for the DBA

    with a view to do decent analytics to your distinct facts stores you need a great realizing of the statistics requirements, an figuring out of the analytical capabilities and algorithms accessible and a high-performance information infrastructure. sadly, the quantity and location of facts sources is increasing (each in measurement and in geography), records sizes are becoming, and applications continue to proliferate in quantity and complexity. How may still IT managers assist this ambiance, mainly with probably the most skilled and mature staff nearing retirement?

    remember additionally that a large a part of cutting back the overall cost of possession of these programs is to get Db2 purposes to run faster and greater efficaciously. This continually translates into the use of fewer CPU cycles, doing fewer I/Os and transporting much less statistics throughout the community. since it's regularly intricate to even identify which functions may advantage from efficiency tuning, one method is to automate the detection and correction of tuning considerations. here's where computer studying and synthetic intelligence can also be used to first rate effect.

    Db2 12 for z/OS and artificial Intelligence

    Db2 edition 12 on z/OS makes use of the desktop studying facilities outlined above to acquire and save SQL question textual content and entry route particulars, in addition to specific performance-connected ancient suggestions comparable to CPU time used, elapsed instances and effect set sizes. This providing, described as Db2 AI for z/OS, analyzes and outlets the statistics in desktop discovering fashions, with the mannequin analysis effects then being scored and made obtainable to the Db2 Optimizer. The next time a scored SQL remark is encountered, the Optimizer can then use the mannequin scoring statistics as enter to its access route choice algorithm.

    The outcome should still be a reduction in CPU consumption because the Optimizer makes use of mannequin scoring enter to select stronger access paths. This then lowers CPU charges and speeds application response times. a major skills is that using AI utility does not require the DBA to have information science talents or deep insights into query tuning methodologies. The Optimizer now chooses the most effective entry paths based mostly not handiest on SQL query syntax and records distribution statistics but on modelled and scored historical efficiency.

    This can also be particularly critical if you shop statistics in diverse places. as an instance, many analytical queries against huge information require concurrent access to certain data warehouse tables. These tables are frequently known as dimension tables, and they include the records facets constantly used to handle subsetting and aggregation. as an example, in a retail atmosphere trust a table referred to as StoreLocation that enumerates every store and its place code. Queries towards store income data may also are looking to mixture or summarize sales by way of region; therefore, the StoreLocation table should be used with the aid of some huge facts queries. during this environment it's standard to take the dimension tables and duplicate them continuously to the large facts utility. in the IBM world this vicinity is the IBM Db2 Analytics Accelerator (IDAA).

    Now believe about SQL queries from both operational applications, records warehouse clients and big statistics enterprise analysts. From Db2's perspective, all these queries are equal, and are forwarded to the Optimizer. although, in the case of operational queries and warehouse queries they should still certainly be directed to access the StoreLocation desk in the warehouse. however, the question from the business analyst towards massive statistics tables should probably access the copy of the table there. This effects in a proliferations of abilities entry paths, and greater work for the Optimizer. thankfully, Db2 AI for z/OS can supply the Optimizer the suggestions it needs to make wise access direction choices.

    how it Works

    The sequence of activities in Db2 AI for z/OS (See Reference 2) is commonly right here:

  • all over a bind, rebind, put together or clarify operation, an SQL remark is passed to the Optimizer;
  • The Optimizer chooses the facts entry direction; as the choice is made, Db2 AI captures the SQL syntax, access path choice and query performance statistics (CPU used, and many others.) and passes it to a "studying assignment";
  • The studying assignment, which may also be carried out on a zIIP processor (a non-conventional-purpose CPU core that does not component into software licensing charges), interfaces with the desktop learning software (MLz mannequin features) to store this suggestions in a mannequin;
  • as the amount of data in each model grows, the MLz Scoring provider (which can also be carried out on a zIIP processor) analyzes the mannequin information and ratings the habits;
  • throughout the next bind, rebind, prepare or clarify, the Optimizer now has access to the scoring for SQL models, and makes applicable alterations to access route selections.
  • There are also a variety of person interfaces that provide the administrator visibility to the status of the amassed SQL statement performance statistics and mannequin scoring.

    summary

    IBM's desktop discovering for zOS (MLz) providing is getting used to remarkable impact in Db2 version 12 to enrich the efficiency of analytical queries as well as operational queries and their associated applications. This requires administration consideration, as you need to verify that your company is ready to eat these ML and AI conclusions. How will you measure the costs and advantages of the use of machine studying? Which IT assist workforce need to be tasked to reviewing the outcomes of mannequin scoring, and perhaps approving (or overriding) the outcomes? How will you evaluation and justify the assumptions that the application makes about access course choices?

    In different words, how well were you aware your facts, its distribution, its integrity and your present and proposed access paths? this can assess the place the DBAs spend their time in aiding analytics and operational software performance.

    # # #

    Reference 1

    John Campbell, IBM Db2 wonderful EngineerFrom "IBM Db2 AI for z/OS: enhance IBM Db2 utility efficiency with machine researching"https://www.worldofdb2.com/hobbies/ibm-db2-ai-for-z-os-raise-ibm-db2-software-performance-with-ma

    Reference 2

    Db2 AI for z/OShttps://www.ibm.com/support/knowledgecenter/en/SSGKMA_1.1.0/src/ai/ai_home.html

    See all articles by way of Lockwood Lyon


    knowing IBM DB2: Product heritage and approach | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    right here is an excerpt from understanding DB2: learning visually with examples, 2nd edition, via Raul Chong,...

    Xiaomei Wang, Michael Dang and Dwaine Snow. it is reprinted right here with permission from foreign business Machines agency; Copyright 2008. read the book excerpt below or down load a free .pdf of the chapter: "knowing IBM DB2: Product heritage and approach."

    Database 2 (DB2) for Linux, UNIX, and windows is an information server developed by using IBM. edition 9.5, attainable in view that October 2007, is essentially the most present edition of the product, and the one on which we focus in this publication.

    during this chapter you're going to be taught concerning the following:

  • The history of DB2
  • The counsel management portfolio of products
  • How DB2 is developed
  • DB2 server variations and clients
  • How DB2 is packaged for builders
  • Syntax diagram conventions
  • 1.1 brief history of DB2

    in view that the 1970s, when IBM analysis invented the Relational mannequin and the Structured query Language (SQL), IBM has developed an entire family unit of statistics servers. building begun on mainframe platforms such as virtual machine (VM), digital Storage extended (VSE), and numerous virtual Storage (MVS). In 1983, DB2 for MVS edition 1 was born. "DB2" turned into used to point out a shift from hierarchical databases—such because the assistance administration system (IMS) time-honored on the time—to the brand new relational databases. DB2 building continued on mainframe platforms in addition to on disbursed structures.1 figure 1.1 suggests one of the vital highlights of DB2 history.

    determine 1.1 DB2 timeline

    In 1996, IBM introduced DB2 typical Database (UDB) version 5 for allotted structures. With this version, DB2 turned into able to keep all kinds of electronic statistics, together with typical relational statistics, as well as audio, video, and textual content documents. It changed into the primary version optimized for the web, and it supported a number dispensed platforms—as an example, OS/2, home windows, AIX, HP-UX, and Solaris—from distinctive providers. moreover, this standard database became capable of run on loads of hardware, from uniprocessor methods and symmetric multiprocessor (SMP) systems to hugely parallel processing (MPP) methods and clusters of SMP systems.

    despite the fact that the relational model to shop facts is essentially the most prevalent in the trade today, the hierarchical mannequin under no circumstances lost its significance. in the past few years, because of the popularity of eXtensible Markup Language (XML), a resurgence in the use of the hierarchical mannequin has taken area. XML, a flexible, self-describing language, relies on the hierarchical mannequin to keep facts. With the emergence of new web applied sciences, the should shop unstructured forms of statistics, and to share and alternate information between organizations, XML proves to be the ultimate language to meet these wants. today we see an exponential growth of XML files utilization.

    IBM diagnosed early on the importance of XML, and big investments were made to deliver pureXML expertise; a technology that offers for more desirable guide to keep XML files in DB2. After five years of building, the hassle of 750 developers, architects, and engineers paid off with the liberate of the primary hybrid information server in the market: DB2 9. DB2 9, purchasable considering July 2006, is a hybrid (also referred to as multi-structured) facts server because it enables for storing relational records, as well as hierarchical statistics, natively. whereas different facts servers in the market, and former types of DB2 could store XML files, the storage formula used changed into no longer most fulfilling for efficiency and flexibility. With DB2 9's pureXML know-how, XML documents are saved internally in a parsed hierarchical method, as a tree; therefore, working with XML files is drastically more suitable. In 2007, IBM has gone even extra in its help for pureXML, with the liberate of DB2 9.5. DB2 9.5, the latest version of DB2, not handiest enhances and introduces new elements of pureXML, however additionally brings improvements in installing, manageability, administration, scalability and efficiency, workload administration and monitoring, regulatory compliance, problem decision, support for software construction, and support for company partner purposes.

    DB2 is purchasable for many systems together with equipment z (DB2 for z/OS) and system i (DB2 for i5/OS). until in any other case cited, after we use the time period DB2, we are relating to DB2 edition 9.5 running on Linux, UNIX, or home windows.

    DB2 is a component of the IBM tips administration (IM) portfolio. table 1.1 suggests the distinct IM items obtainable.

    desk 1.1 assistance administration items

    assistance management items Description Product choices data servers deliver software features for the at ease and productive administration of information and enable the sharing of tips throughout dissimilar structures IBM DB2IBM IMSIBM InformixIBM U2 facts warehousing and enterprise intelligence support valued clientele bring together, put together, manage, analyze, and extract effective advice from all data types to assist them make sooner, more insightful business decisions. DB2 AlphabloxDB2 dice ViewsDB2 Warehouse EditionDB2 query management Facility commercial enterprise content material management & discovery manage content, manner, and connectivity. The content material comprises both structured and unstructured records, reminiscent of e-mails, electronic types, photos, digital media, word processing documents, and web content. operate business search and discovery of tips. DB2 content ManagerDB2 normal StoreDB2 CM OnDemandDB2 statistics ManagerFileNet P8 and its add-on suitesOmniFind counsel integration compile allotted suggestions from heterogeneous environments. organizations view their advice as if it were all living in a single location. IBM advice Server integration utility platform, such as:- WebSphere Federation Server- WebSphere Replication Server- WebSphere DataStage- WebSphere ProfileStage- WebSphere QualityStage- WebSphere information-features Director- WebSphere Metadata Server- WebSphere enterprise thesaurus- WebSphere records experience publisher

    1.2 The function of DB2 in the tips on demand world

    IBM's direction or method is in keeping with some key concepts and technologies:

    On-Demand BusinessInformation On Demand (IOD)service-Oriented architecture (SOA)internet ServicesXML

    during this section we describe each and every of these ideas, and we explain the place DB2 fits in the strategy.

    1.2.1 On-Demand company

    We are living in a fancy world with complicated desktop techniques where trade is a constant. on the same time, purchasers are becoming greater annoying and fewer tolerant of mistakes. In a difficult ambiance like this, agencies need to react instantly to market alterations; in any other case, they will be left in the back of with the aid of competitors. so as to react immediately, a enterprise must be built-in and flexible. In different phrases, a company today needs to be an on-demand enterprise.

    An on-demand business, as described via IBM, is "an enterprise whose business methods -- integrated end to conclusion across the enterprise and with key companions, suppliers and customers -- can reply with speed to any customer demand, market possibility, or external danger."

    IBM's on-demand enterprise model is in line with this definition. To assist the on-demand model, IBM uses the e-enterprise framework shown in figure 1.2.

    determine 1.2 The IBM e-company framework

    In figure 1.2 the dotted line divides the logical ideas at the exact with the physical implementation at the bottom. Conceptually, the IBM e-business framework is based on the on-demand enterprise mannequin working environment, which has 4 standard characteristics: it's integrated, open, virtualized, and autonomic. These traits are defined later in this part. The enviornment under the dotted line illustrates how this atmosphere is carried out with the aid of the suite of IBM utility products.

  • Rational is the "construct" utility portfolio; it is used to strengthen utility.
  • information management (the place DB2 belongs) and WebSphere are the "run" utility portfolios; they shop and manipulate your records and control your functions.
  • Tivoli is the "manage" software portfolio; it integrates, provides safety, and manages your standard systems.
  • Lotus is the "collaborate" software portfolio used for integration, messaging, and collaboration throughout all of the different utility portfolios.
  • The IBM DB2 software performs a important position within the on-demand operating ambiance. All facets of the information management portfolio, together with DB2, are developed with the four essential qualities of the on-demand enterprise model in intellect.

  • built-in: DB2 application has built-in guide for both Microsoft and Java construction environments. it's also integrated into WebSphere, Tivoli, Lotus, and Rational items. moreover, the DB2 family unit has pass-platform capabilities and can be built-in natively with internet functions and message-queuing applied sciences. It additionally gives support for heterogeneous records sources for each structured and unstructured suggestions, together with pureXML assist.
  • Open: DB2 software allows for for distinctive technologies to connect and integrate by following specifications. for this reason, it offers powerful guide for the Linux working equipment and for Java, XML, internet capabilities, grid computing, and different most important industry applications.
  • Virtualized: Grid computing know-how, a kind of dispensed computing, collects and shares elements in a large community to simulate one enormous, digital desktop. DB2 utility items support grid computing expertise through federation and integration technologies. each of these are discussed in more detail later in this chapter.
  • Autonomic: An autonomic computing device manages, repairs, and protects itself. As techniques turn into greater complicated, autonomic computing systems will turn into basic. DB2 gives self-tuning capabilities, dynamic adjustment and tuning, standard and silent setting up strategies, and integration with Tivoli for equipment protection and management.
  • The bottom of determine 1.2 indicates the operating systems through which the IBM software suite can operate: Linux, UNIX, home windows, i5/OS, and z/OS. below that, the servers, storage, and network An on-demand company depends upon having guidance attainable on demand, every time it is required, by way of americans, equipment, or applications. counsel On Demand is mentioned in the subsequent section.

    1.2.2 tips On Demand

    information On Demand, as its name implies, is making suggestions accessible every time individuals, tools, or applications demand or request it. This can also be made viable by means of featuring suggestions as a service. IBM often makes use of the illustration in figure 1.3 to explain what "tips as a service" capacity. Let's use the following instance to clarify this conception in a more enjoyable means. expect you're the frequent supervisor of a grocery store, and your leading intention is to make this business ecocnomic. to accomplish this, you should make good decisions, equivalent to the way to monitor items on shelves so that they promote greater. in order to make decent selections, you need to have up-todate, official assistance.

    figure 1.three counsel as a carrier

    As depicted at the backside of figure 1.three, many agencies today have a huge number of heterogeneous sources of suggestions. For this particular illustration let's anticipate your suppliers use SAP and DB2, your revenue branch uses an internally developed utility, your smaller supermarket valued clientele use Peoplesoft, and Oracle, and the like. accordingly, you see several heterogeneous purposes with semi-raw facts, on the way to best be beneficial to you if you can integrate all of them. with a purpose to integrate the information, it must be offered as a carrier, and here is viable through the use of specifications equivalent to JDBC and ODBC, and wrapping each and every of those purposes as an internet provider. once the facts are built-in, you might also come up with decisions that may not were logical otherwise, akin to inserting beer and diapers in the equal aisle in an effort to sell greater of both products.

    With the information integrated that you may additional massage it to operate some additional analysis and get insightful relationships. This further massaging of the facts can be carried out by way of different application, comparable to entity analytics, master facts, and so forth as shown on the correct aspect of the figure. at last, this integrated facts can also be handed to different techniques, tools and purposes, and individuals for additional analysis.

    1.2.3 carrier-Oriented architecture

    carrier-Oriented structure (SOA), as its name implies, is an architecture based on services -- mainly internet functions. SOA isn't a product, however a technique, a method to design systems that permit for integration, flexibility, loosely coupled components, and more advantageous code reuse. With this structure, enterprise actions are handled as features that will also be accessed on demand during the network.

    figure 1.4, which is additionally used in many IBM displays, depicts the SOA lifecycle. It contains 4 iterative steps or ranges—mannequin, bring together, deploy, manage—and a fifth step that offers counsel during the cycle: Governance & techniques.

    figure 1.4 The SOA Lifecycle

    A more specific clarification of each stage within the SOA lifecycle is equipped in table 1.2.

    SOA stageDescription IBM tools That can also be Used bring togetherThis stage is about constructing new features and/or reusing latest ones, and assembling them to form composite purposes. WebSphere Integration DeveloperRational utility Developer deploy in this stage your capabilities and applications are deployed right into a cozy atmosphere that integrates people, methods, and suggestions within your enterprise. WebSphere manner ServerWebSphere Message BrokerWebSphere associate GatewayWebSphere PortalWebSphere Everyplace DeploymentWorkplace Collaboration ServicesWebSphere suggestions IntegratorWebSphere utility Server controlIn this stage, you deserve to manipulate and video display your gadget, discover and correct inefficiencies and complications, take care of security, satisfactory of provider, and established device administration. DB2 content ManagerWebSphere company MonitorTivoli Composite ApplicationManager for SOATivoli id manager Governance Governance underpins the entire lifecycle degrees. It ensures that all of the features from interior and outside the firm arecontrolled so the system doesn't spin out of manage. Governance offers each course and manage. N/A

    1.2.four internet services

    a web provider, as its identify implies, is a carrier made purchasable throughout the web. A extra formal, however nonetheless fundamental definition states that a web service is a means for an application to name a feature over the community; besides the fact that children, there isn't any should recognize

  • The location where this characteristic might be done
  • The platform wherein the function will run (as an example Linux, UNIX, home windows, the mainframe, Mac OS/X, and many others.)
  • The programming language in which the feature turned into created (for instance Java, Cobol, C, and so on.)
  • web functions are powerful as a result of they allow corporations to change information with minimal or no human intervention. Let's go back to the supermarket instance to see the vigor of internet services in a more simple scenario:

    let's say you order one hundred,000 cookies from a supplier, expecting all of them to be sold in one month. After the month passes handiest 60,000 are bought, so that you are left with 40,000. as a result of these are cookies of a unique type, they'll damage in two weeks. You deserve to act speedy and promote them to other smaller supermarkets or cyber web businesses corresponding to Amazon.com or eBay. that you could grab the cell and spend an entire morning calling each of the smaller supermarket customers, offering them as many cookies as they would want to purchase from you; or you might take a more "technical" method and increase a simple application that could do that for you instantly. Assuming each of those smaller grocery store valued clientele supply web services, you may boost an application (in any programming language) that lets you SQL insert overstocked objects, such because the 40,000 cookies, right into a DB2 database desk overstock. You might then outline a trigger on this desk which invokes a DB2 stored procedure (extra about triggers and kept processes in Chapter 7, Working with Database Objects) that might eat net features provided by the information superhighway corporations or the smaller supermarket shoppers. This situation is depicted in determine 1.5.

    figure 1.5 using an internet carrier

    As that you can see from figure 1.5, the basic act of inserting 40,000 cookies through your utility into the table overstock in the DB2 server enables the systems of many smaller supermarkets and information superhighway groups, through the use of their internet features, to make the cookies purchasable on their programs right now, opening new sales channels. In figure 1.5, DB2 is behaving as a web service buyer, because it is the use of or "consuming" the web capabilities, while the smaller supermarket consumers and web groups are behaving because the net service providers, because they're making these internet features purchasable for others to use. For simplicity applications, we now have disregarded in figure 1.5 the name to a saved system. This state of affairs shows the energy of web services: company-to-enterprise trade of tips using functions. There is no want for human intervention. DB2 and web functions will be discussed in more detail in Chapter 10, mastering the DB2 pureXML support.

    1.2.5 XML

    XML stands for eXtensible Markup Language. XML's popularity and use has grown exponentially in the past few years, as it is a core part of many new technologies. The easiest way to remember how XML works is by way of evaluating it to HTML, considering that many americans today are customary with HTML. Let's take a look on the following line in an HTML doc:

    RaulIn the above line, the tag indicates the style you might like to screen the textual content, during this case, Raul in bold. Now Let's take a glance at the following line in an XML doc: Raul within the above line, the tag describes the textual content Raul. The tag is saying that Raul is truly a name. See the change? In HTML, tags are used to point out how you would want to screen the statistics; in XML, tags are used to truly describe the statistics. table 1.3 describes the qualities of XML. table 1.3 features of XML XML attribute Description bendyXML is a versatile language since it is easy to modify or adapt. XML is according to a hierarchical mannequin, which is most applicable to keep unstructured styles of guidance corresponding to monetary assistance, lifestyles sciences suggestions (for example Genome, DNA), and so forth. handy to expandXML is effortless to prolong; that is, that you can create your own tags. for instance, moreover the tag within the illustration above, you might create new tags similar to , , and so on. This means which you can create your personal language or protocol in keeping with XML. Describes itself XML can describe itself; another document known as an XML Schema (which itself is an XML doc) is used to deliver suggestions and descriptions as to what every of the tags in a doc imply and avoid the class of data the tags can include. An older system, however nonetheless common these days, is to use DTD documents. within the above example, an XML Schema or DTD doc can indicate that the tag can handiest be used to shop characters. will also be converted to other codecs GXML will also be changed to different codecs like HTML, the use of Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformations (XSLT), a language used for the transformation of XML documents. independent of the platform or supplier XML is independent of the platform or vendor; in any case, XML files can be saved in text data containing tags. textual content documents are supported in every single place. effortless to shareXML is convenient to share with other applications, companies, and approaches considering that it will also be stored as a text document. since it is handy to share, it's acceptable as the core of internet services. XML is also on the core of net 2.0 building applied sciences. internet 2.0, as described in Wikipedia. org "refers to a perceived 2nd generation of internet-primarily based communities and hosted functions -- such as social-networking sites, wikis, and folksonomies -- which facilitate collaboration and sharing between clients". Wikis, blogs, mash-ups, RSS or atom feeds, etc, which might be part of internet 2.0 building applied sciences, are all in response to or involving XML. This makes DB2 9.5 the optimal data server platform for net 2.0 building. desk 1.4 describes the distinctive technologies which are a part of internet 2.0. (to look table 1.4 and to examine extra, down load the free .pdf of this chapter.)XML is discussed in more element in Chapter 10, mastering the DB2 pureXML help.greater informationContinue analyzing about IBM DB2 by downloading a free .pdf of the chapter: "realizing IBM DB2: Product background and method."examine other excerpts from facts administration books in the Chapter down load Library.hearken to a podcast about IBM DB2 9 certifications with Roger Sanders.

    DBI Introduces New efficiency Monitoring facets for IBM Db2 LUW | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Jul 30, 2018

    Joyce Wells

    DBI application, a company of Db2 LUW efficiency solutions, has brought new capabilities in its pureFeat V7 efficiency management Suite for IBM Db2 LUW.

    With this unlock, DBI is elevating performance monitoring to aid DBAs and management groups to take care of the volatility of agile environments, spoke of Scott Hayes, president and founder of DBI.

    Agentless colour alternative - IBM has executed a lot of work within the latest release of Db2 (edition 11) to make pureScale easier to use, put in force, and administer and, as a result, DBI has viewed more desirable adoption of pureScale over the closing one year, mentioned Hayes. To support customers get greater from pureScale, DBI’s newest free up adds strong Db2 pureScale performance reporting and trending, together with new performance displays for global Bufferpools, CF Wait times, CF Processing instances, the Cluster Facility, and Member performance.

    Agentless Collector alternative - besides DBI's agent-based collector, the release provides a brand new agentless collector alternative for monitoring cloud databases where a server login instant isn't available. The agentless collector makes it simpler to display screen diverse databases with minimal overhead and administration and is in particular critical for monitoring cloud databases but additionally for comfort in lightweight monitoring of non-crucial databases, pointed out Hayes.

    Database score Calculations - in keeping with DBI, many consumers recognize that the database rating offered by pureFeat helps them straight away triage databases to center of attention on the worst issues first. The rating, ranging from 0-10,000, is charge based, assisting DBA groups to discover hidden or rising future problems.

    in the past, the "analyze database ranking" function highlighted complications and offered suggestions for resolution, but there became no indicator for the severity of the problems recognized. The feedback from clients, pointed out Hayes, turned into that they appreciated the tool however it was no longer clear what the worst problems have been.

    in the new unencumber, the variety of features subtracted for each and every issue is published in order that DBAs can keep in mind what the worst complications are.

    "Index Design Workbench" - DBI’s Predictive Index impact analysis (PIIA) helps Db2 clients bear in mind the affect of adding new indexes given SQL workloads for any timeframe, helping DBA teams to tune Db2 databases with self belief and also helping them profit change manage approvals greater simply.

    constructing on the success of this ability, the brand new liberate adds the capability for DBAs to modify indexes advised by using the Design guide (add, eliminate, or reorder columns, and change kind sequences) or invent their own new index that can also be passed into the affect evaluation.

    Now, valued clientele have the ability to eradicate columns in a counseled index or reorder columns, and if they think they are smarter than the software, stated Hayes, they can create their own index and put it during the predictive impact evaluation device to look if it's going to actually have the a good suggestion have an effect on that they predict.

    enhanced trend Charts - one of the most favourite capabilities offered by means of DBI is the vogue charts with change experience indicators plotted on them. besides the fact that children, in the past, it was most effective viable to graph certain similarly scaled metrics across time on an X and Y axis. during this unlock, a brand new Z axis choice has been delivered, making it feasible to graph multiple metrics across time, helping to identify trigger and effect.

    as an instance, DBAs can now graph the commonplace transaction response time together with the number of existing and active database connections. A DBA may see that after the database is running 30 concurrent energetic connections, response times beginning to decelerate, pointed out Hayes.

    The need for speed

    With the accelerated focus on DevOps, there's extra pressure to take changes instantly and that creates work and stress for DBA teams, accompanied Hayes, stating that “change is an invitation for new issues.” by providing the brand new capabilities in this liberate, he mentioned, DBI is presenting individuals with greater insight into what's occurring inside their Db2 environments.

    For extra information, goto  www.dbisoftware.com/pureFeat-70-DB2-LUW-performance-tools.phpand DBI utility pureFeat V7 news.

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    ACADIA Pharmaceuticals' (ACAD) CEO Stephen Davis on Q4 2017 Results - Earnings Call Transcript | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    No result found, try new keyword!We continued to see strong fundamentals for NUPLAZID ... $22 million of noncash stock-based compensation. Our R&D expense in the fourth quarter was $43.2 million, which included $7.9 million of noncas...

    The Best Software Ever Written | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Let's cut right to the chase and run down Babcock's 12 inaugural choices for the software hall of fame. Coming in at Number 12 is The Morris Worm. This nasty …

    >Veteran technology journalist Charles Babcock has written a terrific article for Information Week called "What's the Greatest Software Ever Written?". His selections are sure to spark a flood of e-mail responses to the weekly IT publication from software developers (who are well known to be passionate about this topic in particular). In general, though, he should get high marks from most. He's clearly done his homework.

    Let's cut right to the chase and run down Babcock's 12 inaugural choices for the software hall of fame. Coming in at Number 12 is The Morris Worm. This nasty little program was crafted by a college student named Robert Morris, who when arrested by the FBI claimed that he had only the best intentions in mind when he released his worm onto the world's networks and brought machines to their knees around the globe. He said he was only attempting to determine the size of the Internet. Clever defense.

    Number 11, according to Babcock, is the Google ranking algorithm. It wasn't the first search engine, not by a long shot. But it made search friendly for even the least technical among us. "The value of an academic paper is measured by the number of times it's mentioned in other papers and footnotes," one of Babcock's sources told him. "Google adapted that convention to the Web."

    In a brilliant choice, in our opinion, Babcock slots NASA's Apollo guidance system at Number 10. Using 8 kilobytes of memory on a circa 1968 Raytheon computer, it controlled the systems that enabled astronauts to navigate to the moon, separate their lunar module from its docked orbiter, descend to the sphere's surface and find their way home again, in a round trip of a half million miles. Not bad for something so tiny.

    Babcock's Number 9 is Microsoft Excel. His rationale? Spreadsheet programs had been around for years before the folks at Redmond took their stab at one; but when they did, they got things right. And then went about the business of making their competitors obsolete.

    Number 8 on the list is the original Macintosh OS. It has been duly criticized as being derivative, taking much of its inspiration from Xerox's Alto, one of the very first personal computers. Rightly so. But greatness is also measured by success and historical impact, Babcock argues. The original Mac was a landmark OS.

    The Number 7 position goes to American Airline's Sabre reservation system. It was the grand-daddy of travel service automation. Sure, it had its critics in its day, including the U.S. government's anti-trust division, but it was also revolutionary, blazing a path in tactical and strategic business applications.

    Number 6 on the Babcock hit parade is the Mosaic browser. Developed by graduate students to help navigate the new World Wide Web, it created a world of its own, and we have never stopped relying on its successors ever since. Spawning everything from Netscape's Navigator to Apple's Safari, this essential app was the originator of the Internet boom.

    Registering at Number 5 is the Java programming language. Critics will point to this choice and bemoan the "network programming language" (Time magazine's 1996 Product of the Year) as the Internet's first great hype machine. Babcock admits that he was an early critic of Java, but he says that he has since come around to admiring the sophistication of its approach.

    He gives the IBM System 360 OS the Number 4 spot. This 1964 operating system for big iron was a revolution and a revelation. Many of the fundamentals of computer system design were ironed out by IBM in this historic project. To this day, IBM systems rely on the breakthroughs it made forty years ago.

    Number 3 on the list is one of the most profound applications ever attempted: the Institute for Genomic Research's human genome sequencing program. This ambitious application set out to beat a U.S government project to map the DNA composition of 20 000 human genes. It did just that. As one of Babcock's sources commented, "[O]n sheer technical brilliance, it gets 10 out of 10."

    Babcock awards the runner-up prize to IBM's System R, the progenitor of relational databases—from DB2, to Oracle, to Sybase, to MySQL, and others. It took set theory and applied it to data storage and retrieval. As a result, relational database management systems have become the underpinning of much of our modern computing infrastructure.

    And last but first, Babcock crowns a multi-headed phenomenon known as the Unix family. This famous set of aunts, uncles, and cousins contains some of the most powerful and elegant coding ever created by an individual, team, corporation, or global community of collaborators. Originally, a pet project of an AT&T researcher, Ken Thompson, Unix and its descendants—notably Unix System III, Linux, and BSD 4.3—have had the broadest impact on the world of any computer programs ever written. And of all the Unix family members, in the end, Babcock selects Berkeley Software Distributions' BSD 4.3 as the single "Greatest Piece of Software Ever."

    Now, let the passionate discussions begin!


    The Sustainability Imperative | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    The Idea in Brief

    The Big Idea: Business history is marked by periods of relative stability punctuated by fundamental shifts in the competitive landscape that create inescapable threats and game-changing opportunities. Sustainability is an emerging business megatrend, like electrification and mass production, that will profoundly affect companies’ competitiveness and even their survival.

    The argument: Understanding how leaders competed in previous megatrends—specifically, the quality movement and the rise of IT—can help companies craft the strategies they’ll need to gain advantage in this one.

    A better approach: The road map is clear: Create a vision that moves systematically through four stages of value creation, starting with defensive tactics and then moving to offensive strategies.

    Then establish and integrate execution capabilities in five key areas: leadership, assessment, strategy development, management integration, and reporting and communication.

    Most executives know that how they respond to the challenge of sustainability will profoundly affect the competitiveness—and perhaps even the survival—of their organizations. Yet most are flailing around, launching a hodgepodge of initiatives without any overarching vision or plan. That’s not because they don’t see sustainability as a strategic issue. Rather, it’s because they think they’re facing an unprecedented journey for which there is no road map.

    But there is a road map. Our research into the forces that have shaped the competitive landscape in recent decades reveals that “business megatrends” have features and trajectories in common. Sustainability is an emerging megatrend, and thus its course is to some extent predictable. Understanding how firms won in prior megatrends can help executives craft the strategies and systems they’ll need to gain advantage in this one.

    The concept of megatrends is not new, of course. Businessman and author John Naisbitt popularized the term in his 1982 best seller of the same name, referring to incipient societal and economic shifts such as globalization, the rise of the information society, and the move from hierarchical organizations to networks.

    Our focus is on business megatrends, which force fundamental and persistent shifts in how companies compete. Such transformations arise from technological innovation or from new ways of doing business, and many factors can launch or magnify the process of change. Business megatrends may emerge from or be accelerated by financial crises, shifts in the social realities that define the marketplace, or the threat of conflict over resources. The geopolitics of the Cold War, for example, drove the innovations that launched both the space race and rapid developments in the field of microelectronics—ultimately unleashing the information technology megatrend. Electrification, the rise of mass production, and globalization were also megatrends, as was the quality movement of the 1970s and 1980s. The common thread among them is that they presented inescapable strategic imperatives for corporate leaders.

    Why do we think sustainability qualifies as an emerging megatrend? Over the past 10 years, environmental issues have steadily encroached on businesses’ capacity to create value for customers, shareholders, and other stakeholders. Globalized workforces and supply chains have created environmental pressures and attendant business liabilities. The rise of new world powers, notably China and India, has intensified competition for natural resources (especially oil) and added a geopolitical dimension to sustainability. “Externalities” such as carbon dioxide emissions and water use are fast becoming material—meaning that investors consider them central to a firm’s performance and stakeholders expect companies to share information about them.

    Over the past 10 years, environmental issues have steadily encroached on businesses’ capacity to create value for customers.

    These forces are magnified by escalating public and governmental concern about climate change, industrial pollution, food safety, and natural resource depletion, among other issues. Consumers in many countries are seeking out sustainable products and services or leaning on companies to improve the sustainability of traditional ones. Governments are interceding with unprecedented levels of new regulation—from the recent SEC ruling that climate risk is material to investors to the EPA’s mandate that greenhouse gases be regulated as a pollutant.

    Further fueling this megatrend, thousands of companies are placing strategic bets on innovation in energy efficiency, renewable power, resource productivity, and pollution control. (See the sidebar “Fueling the Megatrend.”) What this all adds up to is that managers can no longer afford to ignore sustainability as a central factor in their companies’ long-term competitiveness.

    Learning from the Past: Quality and IT

    Megatrends require businesses to adapt and innovate or be swept aside. So what can businesses learn from previous megatrends? Consider the quality movement. The quality revolution was about innovation in the core set of tools and methods that companies used to manage much of what they do. Quality as a central element of strategy, rather than a tactical tool, smashed previous cost versus fitness-for-use barriers, which meant the table stakes were dramatically raised for all companies. The information technology revolution was about tangible technology breakthroughs that fundamentally altered business capabilities and redefined how companies do much of what they do. Digital technologies deeply penetrated corporations in the 1980s and 1990s, and the trend accelerated as IT made its way into the daily lives of workers and consumers with the advent of desktop computing and the internet.

    In both the IT and quality business megatrends—as in others we’ve studied—the market leaders evolved through four principal stages of value creation: First, they focused on reducing cost, risks, and waste and delivering proof-of-value. Second, they redesigned selected products, processes, or business functions to optimize their performance—in essence, progressing from doing old things in new ways to doing new things in new ways. Third, they drove revenue growth by integrating innovative approaches into their core strategies. Fourth, they differentiated their value propositions through new business models that used these innovations to enhance corporate culture, brand leadership, and other intangibles to secure durable competitive advantage.

    The quality story.

    The economic downturn of the late 1970s, coupled with the 1979 oil shock, drove a dramatic shift in consumer preferences toward efficiency. Many industries were transformed, perhaps none more dramatically than the automotive sector. Of course, the seeds of change had been planted earlier. In the years after World War II, Japan had rebuilt its industrial infrastructure on a model of high-volume, low-cost factories that mass-produced goods of questionable durability and quality. “Made in Japan” was not considered a brand asset. By the mid 1970s, however, Japanese government and business leaders had seized upon the ideas of Edwards Deming and others who stressed quality as a core value. This incremental, process-oriented approach to systematic improvement fit well with Japanese executives’ views on how to drive change to compete effectively in the global market. Leading firms including Toyota and Honda embraced Total Quality Management (TQM) methods, fundamentally shifting their value propositions. Quality methods called into question the assumptions managers had relied on for decades, namely that high quality and affordability were mutually exclusive.

    The focus on quality—initially adopted as a means of reducing defects—delivered a greater advantage to companies that took a holistic view and drove changes across their business operations. The famed Toyota Way applied quality methods to every stage of value creation from concept to customer—and ultimately to intangibles such as brand, reputation, and corporate culture. The reputational harm Toyota is experiencing thanks to the recent recalls underscores how important quality continues to be to the firm’s central value proposition. Toyota’s current troubles also highlight the need for firms to align core elements of strategy. In this case, the dissonance between its long-term quality strategy and a more recent topline growth strategy has seriously undermined Toyota’s model for value creation.

    Rey Moore, the former chief quality officer at Motorola, describes a similar evolutionary process at the communications giant. Like most firms, Motorola first used quality methods to improve fault and error detection and thus reduce cost, waste, and risk. As those methods proved valuable, the company began to redesign manufacturing processes and product development functions to proactively reduce risks of product failures, functional inadequacies, and other inefficiencies rather than simply detect them. As quality’s potential business impact grew, Motorola developed Six Sigma methods and a standardized tool kit including items like Pareto charts and root-cause analysis models to take quality to scale. Eventually, quality became a defining attribute of Motorola’s brand and culture and a source of competitive advantage. The same story unfolded at firms in all industry sectors as leading companies rode the quality wave to enhanced growth and profitability—delivering a clear quality premium for their shareholders.

    The IT story.

    When the recession of 1982 hit, pressure mounted at many companies to increase productivity, particularly by using emerging information technology innovations to drive cost savings. The early returns on these efforts were mixed. As with quality, skeptics described IT as a black hole into which firms poured money with little return. But some corporate leaders saw that the strategic application of IT could drive growth and provide decisive advantage. American Airlines, a classic example, captured more than 40% of all U.S. airline transactions thanks to its innovative Sabre reservations system.

    A lesser known case is American Hospital Supply’s deployment of a revolutionary online purchasing system, which allowed hospitals to order medical supplies electronically, reducing costs, time, and errors for both the company and its customers. Over the next decade, the Analytic Systems Automatic Purchasing system—better known as ASAP—transformed how AHS delivered value to its customers.

    Building on its success improving efficiency and reducing inventory risk, the firm developed service innovations that enabled it to deliver any product from any manufacturer at any time from any desktop computer to any hospital supply room. In the process, AHS amassed an extensive product and price database that gave AHS a clear advantage over less nimble competitors. Finally, AHS used IT to evolve its business model. The company, which had been a single-source materials provider to its hospital clients, began taking over their inventory management and procurement processes. This IT-driven innovation established the AHS brand as the leader in its business with a competitive edge based originally on price and later on service and helped the company grow earnings from $42 million in 1974 to $237 million in 1984.

    The IT and quality megatrends show us that firms seeking to gain advantage in sustainability will have to solve two problems simultaneously: formulating a vision for value creation and executing on it. In other words, they must rethink what they do in order to capture this evolving source of value; and they must recast how they operate, expanding their capacity to execute with new management structures, methods, executive roles, and processes tailored to sustainability’s demands.

    Getting the Vision Right

    Just as winners in previous megatrends outperformed competitors by following a staged evolution in strategy, so too must companies hoping to lead (or even compete) in the emerging sustainability wave. The idea that mastering sustainability should follow a multistage approach is already apparent. In 2006, one of us (Esty) with coauthor Andrew Winston described such a strategy in Green to Gold. The framework has since been extended, notably by Ram Nidumolu, C.K. Prahalad, and M.R. Rangaswami in their article “Why Sustainability Is Now the Key Driver of Innovation” (HBR September 2009). As was the case in the IT and quality megatrends, pioneering companies in sustainability often start by focusing on risk and cost reduction and over time develop strategies for increasing value creation, ultimately including intangibles such as brand and culture. Let’s examine the four stages of value creation.

    Stage 1: Do old things in new ways.

    Firms focus on outperforming competitors on regulatory compliance and environment-related cost and risk management. In doing so, they develop proof cases for the value of eco-efficiency. At its inception 30 years ago, 3M’s Pollution Prevention Pays was just this kind of initiative. As of 2005, PPP had reduced 3M pollutants by more than 2.6 billion pounds and saved the company more than $1 billion. It also laid the foundation for the nearly completed Environmental Targets 2005–2010 program, which will reduce expenses related to energy usage, emissions, and waste by another 20%.

    Stage 2: Do new things in new ways.

    Firms engage in widespread redesign of products, processes, and whole systems to optimize natural resource efficiencies and risk management across their value chains. DuPont’s “zero waste” commitment, for instance, increased the company’s prioritization of eco-efficiency across their operations. Its decision to shed businesses with big eco-footprints, such as carpets and nylon, was based on an analysis that the business and environmental risks would outweigh their potential contribution to future earnings.

    Stage 3: Transform core business.

    As the vision expands further, sustainability innovations become the source of new revenues and growth. Dow’s sweeping 2015 Sustainability Goals, designed to drive innovation across its many lines of business, yielded new products or technology breakthroughs in areas from solar roof shingles to hybrid batteries. The core business, which had traditionally relied on commodity chemicals, has shifted toward advanced materials and high-tech energy opportunities.

    Stage 4: New business model creation and differentiation.

    At the highest level, firms exploit the megatrend as a source of differentiation in business model, brand, employee engagement, and other intangibles, fundamentally repositioning the company and redefining its strategy for competitive advantage. GE’s ecomagination initiative, poised to deliver $25 billion in revenues in 2010, enabled CEO Jeff Immelt not just to reposition the company as an energy and environmental solutions provider but to build a green aura into the GE brand.

    Getting Execution Right

    Gaining advantage in a megatrend is not just about vision—it’s also about execution in five critical areas: leadership, methods, strategy, management, and reporting. In each area, companies must transition from tactical, ad hoc, and siloed approaches to strategic, systematic, and integrated ones.

    Leadership.

    When CIOs first came on the scene, the role was ill-defined and narrowly focused. A limited set of problems was seen as suitable for IT solutions. Now CIOs play undisputed strategic roles with implications for all functions and business units. Strategic sustainability initiatives need similar C-level leadership. While many companies now have chief sustainability officers, the role varies tremendously from firm to firm. CEOs must make a commitment to institutionalizing this new executive position and allocating the necessary resources and responsibilities.

    The CSO will be essential to moving companies through the sustainability stages. Like the CIO, a chief sustainability officer helps the CEO and executive team visualize goals and professionalize the process of aligning vision with business strategy. That means redefining performance expectations, specifying accountability, tracking results, and rewarding success. As best practices bubble up in individual units, the CSO is responsible for ensuring that they’re disseminated widely and that the skills needed to execute are available.

    Many firms are now accustomed to working with partners and suppliers in formulating their vision and goals, but a CSO must broaden and deepen those links as companies are increasingly held responsible for their entire value chain and product life cycle. Sustainability leadership must put a premium on developing shared goals with a broad set of stakeholders—customers, interest groups, and even competitors and adversaries. Coca-Cola, for instance, has worked intensively with its bottling partners to “light weight” its packaging, cutting greenhouse gas emissions and generating savings in the tens of millions of dollars. It has also made a commitment, in cooperation with its bottlers and the World Wildlife Fund, among other NGOs, to “water neutrality”—an initiative that will reduce its strategic risk and environmental impact by replenishing watersheds to the full extent of the water it extracts. In response to urging by Greenpeace, Coca-Cola announced in December 2009 that all its new vending machines and coolers would be HFC-free by 2015, reducing the equipment’s greenhouse gas emissions by 99%.

    Methods for assessing value.

    With a sustainability vision in place, the executive team must marshal specialized capabilities for weighing options and quantifying benefits and risks. Just as the quality and IT megatrends ushered in new skill sets and fresh perspectives, the sustainability megatrend will require firms to update traditional business tools—business-case analysis, trend spotting, scenario planning, risk modeling, and even cost accounting—to encompass the specialized requirements of environmental sustainability.

    Most current methods that companies use to track or project sustainability impacts generate inconsistent, incomplete, and imprecise data. Recognizing that if they can’t measure it, they can’t manage it, companies are developing better means of gauging corporate-sustainability-related costs and benefits and of benchmarking performance. Fujitsu, for instance, employs a performance assessment scorecard—its “cost green index”—that assesses the potential cost, productivity, and environmental impacts of eco-efficiency initiatives across the firm.

    Other companies are repurposing standardized tools and methods to bring a sustainability focus to all aspects of the business. For example, 3M, a longtime quality leader, is now applying lean Six Sigma methodologies originally aimed at improving operational efficiency and product quality to driving direct reductions in energy use, waste, and greenhouse gas emissions. To meet aggressive five-year sustainability targets, its Six Sigma leadership group has trained 55,000 employees in how to use these methods. As sustainability-related methods and tools mature, we expect training programs and certifications not unlike certified IT roles or black and green belts in the quality domain to emerge.

    Strategy development.

    Once firms have a solid base of analytical data, they will be positioned to develop distinctive sustainability strategies. Many aspects of strategy development will remain internal, but companies will increasingly adopt open-source approaches that engage outsiders.

    Perhaps more than any other company, Wal-Mart has pursued this approach. In 2006, then-CEO Lee Scott launched Sustainability 360, establishing explicit goals to purchase 100% renewable energy, create zero waste, slash greenhouse gas emissions, and sell “products that sustain our resources and the environment.” To this end, Wal-Mart created a dozen Sustainable Value Networks, each comprising Wal-Mart team members, NGO experts, academics, government officials, and supplier representatives, all working under the direction of a Wal-Mart network captain. Each team focuses on a strategic issue targeted by the company’s sustainability agenda—such as facilities, packaging, and logistics—and tries to develop new ways of doing business that support the company’s sustainability goals. The payoffs are already showing up: One of the Sustainable Value Networks, tasked with fleet logistics, came up with a transportation strategy that improved efficiency by 38%, saving Wal-Mart more than $200 million annually and cutting its greenhouse gas emissions by 200,000 tons per year.

    Management integration.

    To capture the full benefits of the megatrend-driven strategy, firms must integrate sustainability objectives into day-to-day management. Leadership may come from headquarters, but responsibility for implementation lies in the field. Firms such as Dow have incorporated sustainability objectives into compensation models, reviews, and other management processes, including a requirement that all newly promoted business unit managers review their units’ sustainability plans with senior management within 90 days.

    Managing sustainability strategy requires systems support as well. While many firms have invested in technology to record and report environmental events such as spills and waste disposal, others have gone much further. Wayne Balta, head of Corporate Environmental Affairs at IBM, describes his company’s environmental management system as the foundation for policy deployment, practice management, goal setting, decision making, and data capture. IBM uses the technology to embed environmental strategies into all areas of the business, from R&D to operations to end-of-life product disposal.

    Reporting and communication.

    As public scrutiny, governmental regulation, and customer expectations intensify, companies will need to build capabilities in sustainability reporting. For example, they will need to share information on their response to emerging environmental standards, such as the EPA’s proposed greenhouse gas emissions reporting regulations, and on the financial impacts of the sustainability megatrend to employees, shareholders, and other stakeholders. Developing metrics that allow companies to measure benefits and understand costs is essential to adapting and refining their strategy, as well as communicating results. And Wall Street will increasingly demand evidence that sustainability investments are generating returns.

    We see substantial room for improved sustainability communications, particularly among companies with a strong commitment to lead in this arena. Our firm has conducted evaluations of dozens of companies along 35 dimensions of sustainability management. When the assessments were based only on publicly available information and a company’s external reporting, we got scores that were almost always lower, and often significantly so, than scores developed in consultation with the company and with full inside information.

    We’ve found a few companies that are leading the way toward the sort of expanded sustainability reporting that we anticipate will become standard practice. Timberland’s sustainability reports, for example, include numerous metrics on pollution and use of natural resources. The company has also broken new ground in providing product-level environmental-impact information to its customers with labeling that resembles the Nutrition Facts labels on food.

    Building a Sustainability Performance System

    By joining a vision of sustainability value creation (the “what we must do”) with evolving execution capabilities (the “how we must do it”), firms develop what we call a sustainability performance system. Depending on their sophistication in both realms, and their desire to use sustainability as a competitive weapon, they’ll fall into one of four categories:

    Losers.

    As the sustainability megatrend accelerates, firms that have put in place only modest cost, risk, and waste initiatives and whose vision and strategies are vaguely conceived or disjointed will find it increasingly difficult to protect their position. It may be too early to see clear examples of firms that have lost their competitive position based on the failure to develop and execute sustainability strategies, but the casualties from other megatrends like quality and IT abound. GM’s decline can clearly be traced to its earlier failure to understand how quality considerations would transform the auto industry. Likewise, Kodak’s dominant position in photography eroded quickly as it missed or ignored the signals that digital technologies would displace film.

    Defenders.

    Some firms may choose a “go slow” sustainability strategy for many reasons—the peculiarities of their industry sector or business processes, their environmental exposure, or other competitive considerations. Others will be content to make investments in the early-stage objectives of cost, risk, and waste management. This defensive posture can work, provided the gap between a go-slow company’s market position and that of primary competitors does not grow too large and the company has execution capabilities commensurate with the complexity of its business. Maersk, the Danish shipping company, has focused its sustainability efforts on efficiency, slashing fuel costs and cutting carbon dioxide emissions through slow-speed shipping and other initiatives. As long as others in the shipping business do not pursue a more sweeping sustainability strategy, perhaps built on more-efficient ship design, Maersk should be able to hold its position. Indeed, many companies may find that their best option is to play defense on sustainability and not try to make this the issue on which they differentiate themselves in the marketplace.

    Dreamers.

    When vision and ambition get too far ahead of the capacity to execute, companies face another set of issues. Those that seek first-mover advantages in the later stages of sustainability differentiation without having mapped out a clear strategy and mastered the fundamentals of execution may experience the same kinds of problems that plagued some aspiring pioneers in the quality and IT megatrends. For instance, the London Stock Exchange’s vision of a paperless settlement system was a bold move and one that managers believed would catapult the organization ahead of its peers. Managers optimistically ballparked the cost at £6 million and jumped in with both feet. By the time the exchange acknowledged that it lacked the management and technical capabilities to execute this leading-edge IT project, in 1993, the tab had shot past £400 million, with no end in sight.

    Like the IT and quality megatrends, sustainability will touch every function, every business line, every employee.

    Dreamers who try to ride the sustainability wave risk making sustainability promises they can’t keep, inviting charges of greenwashing and the attendant reputational and financial harm. Some years ago, Ford Motor Company suffered from Bill Ford’s attempts to green his business before his management team was ready. His unfulfilled commitments to improve SUV fuel economy and make Ford a leader in hybrid vehicles brought the wrath of environmental groups. His successor, Alan Mullaly, has moved Ford forward with new models that feature advanced materials, smart systems, and high efficiency, enabling the automaker to withstand the current downturn better than domestic competitors and positioning Ford for success.

    Winners.

    Although the sustainability landscape continues to shift, some early winners have emerged. GE’s financial services business has lagged badly, but its ecomagination product line has generated tens of billions of dollars in revenues and positioned the company as a leader in rapidly growing market segments such as energy infrastructure and high-efficiency appliances, jet engines, and locomotives. The ecomagination marketing campaign has also had a halo effect, helping GE transform its reputation from environmental bad actor to sustainability front-runner. Similarly, Clorox’s Greenworks line of eco-friendly cleaning products has reframed the public’s perception of the company—and generated billions of dollars of sales. Clorox’s acquisition of Burt’s Bees, a leader in natural personal care products, further convinced environmental stakeholders that the company’s shift in strategy was both sincere and significant.

    Soon companies will have a clear sense of what it means to manage sustainability as a business megatrend. Best practices will emerge, and sustainability scorecards will allow companies to track cost and risk reduction as well as evaluate value-creation activities. As environmental data become richer and more accurate, companies will be able to chart their impacts in financial terms—making it easier for market analysts to identify the firms positioned to deliver an eco-premium. In this new world, the sustainability strategy imperative will be systematized and integrated into the day-to-day practices of firms of all sizes in all industries. Like the IT and quality megatrends, sustainability will touch every function, every business line, every employee. On the way to this future, firms with a clear vision and the execution capabilities to navigate the megatrend will come out ahead. Those that don’t will be left by the wayside.

    A version of this article appeared in the May 2010 issue of Harvard Business Review.


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