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000-266 AS/400 RPG IV Programmer

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000-266 exam Dumps Source : AS/400 RPG IV Programmer

Test Code : 000-266
Test Name : AS/400 RPG IV Programmer
Vendor Name : IBM
Q&A : 74 Real Questions

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IBM AS/400 RPG IV Programmer

Settling In With IBM i For The long Haul | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

February 11, 2019 Timothy Prickett Morgan

If nothing else, the IBM i platform has exhibited magnificent toughness. One may even say legendary longevity, in case you want to take its history all of the manner back to the gadget/3 minicomputer from 1969. this is the real starting factor in the AS/four hundred family unit tree and this is when huge Blue, for terribly sound criminal and technical and advertising reasons, determined to fork its items to tackle the enjoyable wants of large organisations (with the equipment/360 mainframe and its comply with-ons) and small and medium groups (starting with the gadget/3 and moving on through the equipment/34, gadget/32, device/38, and system/36 in the 1970s and early Eighties and passing in the course of the AS/four hundred, AS/400e, iSeries, device i, and then IBM i on power techniques platforms.

It has been a long run indeed, and a lot of shoppers who have invested within the platform started method again then and there with the early models of RPG and moved their purposes forward and adjusted them as their groups evolved and the depth and breadth of corporate computing changed, relocating on up via RPG II, RPG III, RPG IV, ILE RPG, and now RPG free kind. Being on this platform for even three decades makes you a relative newcomer.

there is a longer run forward, considering the fact that we accept as true with that the groups that are still operating IBM i techniques are the genuine diehards, the ones who have no intention of leaving the platform and that, as a minimum in keeping with the survey information we have been privy too, are desiring to continue investing in, and even extend their investments in, the IBM i platform.

so far, we aren't in a recession and heaven inclined there will not be one, so the priorities that IBM i stores have are not the ones that that they had a decade in the past throughout the peak of the amazing Recession. again then, as changed into the case in essentially all IT agencies, IBM i retail outlets had been hunkering down and had been attempting to reduce prices in all techniques feasible, together with deferring gadget improvements and migrations in addition to chopping lower back on different tasks. only 29 % of the 750 IBM i retail outlets that participated in the 2019 IBM i market Survey, which HelpSystems did returned in October 2018, have been involved about cutting back IT spending. here is a remarkably low level, and that i believe is indicative of how distinctly powerful the financial system is – excepting one of the fits and starts we noticed on the end of 2018 and here in early 2019 that make us worried and could start putting force on issues. listed here are the top considerations as culled from the survey:

dealing with the boom in records and in deciding the analytics to bite on that records ranked a bit bit higher on the 2019 IBM i market Survey than did reducing costs, and that i consider over the long haul these concerns will become greater critical than modernizing functions and coping with the IBM i potential shortages that are a perennial worry. both of those issues are being solved as new programmers and new tools to make new interfaces to database applications are getting greater ordinary and as applied sciences such as free kind RPG, which looks greater like Java, Python, and Hypertext Preprocessor, are being greater widely deployed and, importantly, may also be picked up more rapidly via programmers experienced with these different languages.

Given the nature of the customer base, it seems not going to me that safety and excessive availability will not continue to be simple issues, despite the fact that the IBM i platform is among the many most relaxed systems in the world (and never simply because it is imprecise, however since it is exceptionally intricate to hack) and it has a variety of high availability and disaster recovery tools (from IBM, Syncsort, Maxava, and HelpSystems) obtainable for those that want to double up their programs and offer protection to their purposes and information. The bar is often larger than primary backup and healing for many IBM i shops within the banking, insurance, manufacturing, and distribution industries that dominate the platform. These organizations can’t have safety breaches, and they can’t have downtime.

there's a excellent volume of balance in the IBM i customer base that we think, at this factor, is reflective in the balance of the IBM i platform and big Blue’s personal belief that it needs a fit IBM i platform to have an overall fit power methods business. all of us recognize that the vigour programs hardware company has simply grew to become in 5 quarters of profits boom – anything we discussed lately in constructing our personal income mannequin for the energy programs company – but what we didn't understand, and what make sure you know, is that within the 2d and third quarters of 2018, the IBM i portion of the business grew significantly sooner than the overall vigour techniques company, and the only intent that this did not happen within the closing quarter of 2018 is that income of IBM i machinery in q4 2017 became rather robust and represented a really challenging compare. The element is, the IBM i enterprise has been raising the vigour techniques category average. (These recommendations in regards to the IBM i business come compliments of Steve Sibley, vice chairman and providing manager of Cognitive techniques at IBM.)

IBM’s personal economic stability of the energy platform – which has been bolstered by way of a circulation into Linux clusters for analytics and excessive performance computing simulation and modeling as well as by the adoption of the HANA in-memory database through SAP purchasers on massive iron machines including Power8 and now Power9 systems – helps IBM i valued clientele think greater assured in investing in the latest IBM i platform. The fresh proof from a number of diverse surveys, no longer just the one finished by means of HelpSystems every year, suggests that companies are through and massive either carrying on with to invest in the platform and even in some cases are planning to boost their spending on the IBM i platform in 2019.

As you could see, the pattern of funding plans for the IBM i platform, as proven within the chart above, has not modified very tons in any respect in the past four years. it is a remarkably solid pattern with but a little wiggling right here and there that may additionally no longer even be statistically huge. just below a quarter of IBM i stores have said during the past four years that they plan to enhance their investment within the platform in every yr, and simply under half say that they are keeping regular. This doesn't imply that the equal groups, yr after year, are investing more and different agencies are staying pat, yr after 12 months. it is way more seemingly that every handful of years – greater like four or five – valued clientele improve their methods and extend their means, and they then sit tight. The ask yourself is that the break up isn’t displaying far fewer businesses investing and much extra sitting tight. That more than a tenth of the shops don’t understand what their plan is as each and every prior yr comes to a close is a little traumatic, however it is sincere and shows that a good portion of shops produce other priorities apart from hardware and working equipment enhancements. we have pointed out this earlier than and we will say it once more: We suppose that the people who reply to surveys and browse weekly publications concentrated on the IBM i platform are probably the most lively shops – those greater prone to stay enormously latest on hardware and utility. So the pace of adoption for brand spanking new technologies, and the cost of funding, should still be bigger than within the actual base, a whole lot of which doesn't alternate tons at all.

So if we had to regulate this statistics to tackle the whole base, there might possibly be some distance fewer websites that are investing extra funds, far more businesses that are sitting tight, and maybe fewer websites which are taking into account relocating off the IBM i platform. I think the distribution of facts is doubtless something like 10 p.c of shops don't have any conception what they're doing funding wise with IBM this 12 months, 5 % are considering relocating some or all of their purposes to yet another platform, probably 10 p.c are investing greater this yr, and the closing seventy five percent are sitting tight. here is just a wager, of path. so far as we can inform, the expense of attrition – what number of websites we in fact lose each and every yr – only a tad over 1 p.c. So the cost of circulate of applications off the platform, or incidences of unplugging IBM i databases and purposes, may also now not be anywhere close as high in the general base because the statistics above suggests. what is alarming, possibly, is that the cost of moving some or all purposes off the platform is balanced against people that say they're going to enhance investments. possibly these are hopeful survey takers, and those that consider it is handy to movement discover it isn't and those that suppose they'll find the funds to invest will no longer.

What we do be aware of is that if the fee of application attrition turned into anyplace close as high as these surveys suggest, then the IBM i company would not be starting to be, however shrinking. And we understand it isn't shrinking, so we believe there's a disconnect between planning and truth, both on the upside and the draw back.

in case you drill down into the records for the 2019 IBM i industry Survey, there were 13 p.c of shops that talked about they might be relocating some applications to a brand new platform, and a different 9 p.c that pointed out they had been going to circulate all of their applications off IBM i. (This number is according to the recent ALL400s survey performed by John Rockwell.)

Anyway, first rate good fortune with that.

Porting purposes from one platform to an extra, of purchasing a new suite on that new platform, is an enormously difficult project. It isn't like trying to change a tire whereas using down the highway, as is a common metaphor, however reasonably like attempting to take the tire off one vehicle relocating down the dual carriageway and setting up it on one more motor vehicle riding beside it within the adjoining lane devoid of crashing either motor vehicle or smashing into any individual else on the highway. Optimism abounds, but when push involves shove, only a few agencies try such a maneuver, and once they do, it is usually as a result of there is a company mandate, more instances than now not brought about through a merger or acquisition, that pits some other platform in opposition t IBM i running on energy programs. businesses that say they are making this sort of move off IBM i are sanguine for their own own explanations, in all probability, however they are not always simple about how lengthy it may take, what disruption it will cost, and what optimal advantage, if any, could be realized.

if you do the mathematics on the chart above, eight-tenths of the bottom has no concept how lengthy a move will take, one other 1.7 % thinks it will take more than 5 years, and 3 p.c say it is going to take between two years and five years. most effective 3.4 % of the entire base say they can do it in under two years. We consider all of those numbers are positive, and the corporations who might conveniently go away OS/400 and IBM i already did a long time in the past and those which are continue to be have a more durable time, not an easier time, relocating. If this had been now not authentic, the IBM i base could be a hell of an awful lot smaller than the one hundred twenty,000 consumers we suppose are available, in keeping with what large Blue has told us during the past. here is the change between concern or drive or culture and the fact of making an attempt to movement a company off one platform and onto one more. These strikes are always lots tougher than they seem on the front end, and we suspect most of the merits additionally don’t materialize for those who do bounce systems.

at the typical attrition expense suggested by way of this survey records – 9 p.c stream off the platform in somewhere between twelve months and more than 5 years, with most agencies now not being in a position to see greater than five years into the long run that is a neat trick – the installed base would cut back dramatically. it's challenging to claim how some distance as a result of the wide range of timeframes in the survey. If it changed into 9 percent of the bottom inside two years – call it 4.5 percent of the bottom per yr – then within a decade the typical base would shrink from 120,000 IBM i websites international all the way down to about 72,000. this is able to dramatic certainly. but at a 1 percent attrition price per year, the bottom is still at 107,500 unique valued clientele (now not sites and never installed machines, both of which are larger) by means of 2029. We consider there is every probability that the attrition price will really gradual and drop beneath 1 p.c as IBM demonstrates dedication to the energy techniques platform and its IBM i working equipment. There are all the time some new purchasers being introduced in new markets, to make certain, but the bleed fee (in spite of the fact that it is small) continues to be probably an order of magnitude better than the feed expense.

when they do think about making the move, IBM i shops know exactly where they are looking to go, and this reply has been step by step altering over the years: Linux as an alternative to IBM i is on the upward thrust and home windows Server as an choice is on the wane. within the newest survey, fifty two % of the organizations that stated they had been relocating all or a few of their purposes to an additional platform pointed out they were picking out windows Server, while 34 % chose Linux. This displays the relative recognition of home windows Server and Linux within the datacenters of the world at enormous, and might be tipped simply a bit greater closely towards Linux compared to the relaxation of the world. interestingly, 10 % of these polled who talked about they were relocating had been AIX platforms, and one more four p.c were going upscale to gadget z mainframes – as unlikely as this may look. systems are likely to roll downhill; they do not always defy gravity like that.

The thing about such surveys is that they exhibit intent, now not action. We frequently intend to do a lot more than we definitely can accomplish, and relocating platforms after spending many years of build up expertise is not always a very sensible move except the platform is in real crisis – just like the Itanium programs from Hewlett Packard commercial enterprise running OpenVMS or HP-UX or the HP 3000s operating MPE or the Sparc systems from Oracle operating Solaris. These have been as soon as first-rate structures with big put in bases and gigantic revenue streams, but now, IBM is the last of those Unix and proprietary structures with its energy methods line. And it is via some distance the biggest and for sure the only one showing any boom.

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road to Java Goes through RPG IV | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

road to Java Goes through RPG IV

[Editor’s Note: This article is part one of a three-part series on making the transition from RPG to Java in an AS/400 shop.]

You’re dedicated to the AS/400 and enhance applications in RPG. it really works high-quality for you, at all times has. however you’ve heard so plenty about Java being the way forward for AS/400 utility building, if no longer the savior of the platform. in fact, nothing runs it superior than the AS/four hundred. so that you are looking to see what Java can do to your eco-friendly-monitor RPG applications.

You’re no longer on my own. At person conferences coast-to-coast, standing-room best crowds are packing conference rooms to find out simply what Java is all about. but the transition from typical RPG to Java doesn’t take place overnight. IBM has outlined five phases AS/400 retail outlets should still go through alongside the highway to Java.

this text offers with part I – upgrading RPG III and CL to RPG IV and ILE CL.

Why improve to RPG IV? first of all, IBM is not any longer investing in RPG III. For that be counted, it most effective invests in RISC versions of RPG IV. Secondly, RPG IV, attainable in view that the V3R1 release of OS/four hundred four years ago, is a more modern application development environment.

“RPG IV is greater modular,” says George Farr, VisualAge RPG and ILE RPG IV technical construction supervisor. “You don’t have monolithic purposes with traces and lines of code.”

furthermore, RPG IV is ILE-enabled, that means it can be integrated with applications written in different ILE (integrated Language atmosphere) languages like C and COBOL . “which you can mix RPG with different languages, it combines the entire traces together,” says Farr. “You create something in RPG, C or COBOL and run it all from a single technique.”

Farr says RPG IV has similarities to Java in language facets and syntax, although it doesn’t have any object-oriented facets like encapsulation, polymorphism and inheritance. He explains that RPG IV has structured op codes that “compare directly” to loops and “if…choose” functions in Java. statistics forms used by way of each languages are identical.

“if you flow straight from RPG III to Java, the learning curve is a whole lot steeper,” he says. “If it’s 50 percent going from RPG IV to Java, it’s eighty % going from RPG III to Java.” And however you don’t intend to movement from RPG to Java, you’ll nevertheless deserve to circulation to RPG IV to integrate Java into your gadget ambiance.

“if you’re going to have any interoperability between Java and RPG, have Java call RPG or RPG call Java, handiest RPG IV can give that enablement,” Farr says.

“As we move ahead, I definitely don’t feel Java will ever replace RPG. RPG is right here to dwell. even though we wanted to kill it, what on earth would we do with the hundreds of thousands of traces of RPG code which are accessible? in case you believe your latest applications don’t need Java, you can depart them the manner they're. however you can enable Java to check with RPG and RPG to check with Java with RPG IV.”

The RPG tide is slowly turning toward RPG IV. Farr estimates that the percentage of RPG clients on RPG IV was within the single digits in the first two years after RPG IV turned into launched. He says it’s probably in the 40-50 p.c range now.

“when you flow to RPG IV, be sure you put money into cleansing up your RPG code,” he says. “With RPG IV’s op codes, which you could do things in a single line of code – like add a date/time stamp – that you would ought to write lines of code for in RPG III. You circulation to RPG IV, you turn them into procedures.”

So transitioning to RPG IV gained’t turn RPG builders into Java developers. but it surely’s an important first step. Farr cautions that the item-oriented nature of Java may also be intricate to draw close for the RPG programmer.

“Java is an object-oriented language similar to C++. It’s now not being pushed by way of corporations however by way of the user group. Java is a really dependent language. It cleans up a lot of the mess of C++, with distinct inheritance, with pointers, with rubbish collection. Java’s made it plenty quicker to do object-oriented programming than C++. but any OO language goes to be challenging to an RPG user.

“It’ll be more straightforward to be taught Java than C++. The language features will be handy to gain knowledge of, however the OO elements can be extremely difficult. it may possibly take americans a couple of months just to gain knowledge of what OO is all about.”

Farr says now not every RPG programmer will should learn Java. He suggests that most shops can be combined RPG and Java. New hires is generally the Java consultants.

“I see Java as unavoidable notably with the web. Most corporations will need to tune in to it at some point.” if you convert your RPG III purposes to RPG IV, don’t depart your CL functions in the back of. They need to be transformed to ILE CL.

“if in case you have applications written in RPG III and also you convert them to RPG IV, it’s not first rate ample in case your CL remains in an OPM (original application module) atmosphere,” says Jing Wang, senior utility engineer at IBM’s Rochester, Minn. AS/400 construction center. “RPG IV runs right into a separate ILE motion community. Sharing open data and commit control does not work that well with CL. You should migrate CL to ILE CL and make the entire application ILE.

“We’ve found lots of functions do share open info. devoid of moving to ILE CL, that you could nonetheless make info shareable, however it’s not that smooth.”

Like RPG IV, ILE CL is a should for interfacing with Java applications. other than being one more step along the road to Java, ILE CL presents efficiency advantages as well.

“When an RPG application executes an exterior name, performance smart, it’s now not nearly as good with CL,” Wang says. “when you flow CL to ILE and combine that CL module with the [ILE] RPG module to kind a single software object, performance sensible, it’ll be improved than anything else you had before.”

[Editor’s Note: Part two of the Road to Java series, due to run in the Jan. 11, 1999 MIDRANGE Systems, will focus on making the transition to modular ILE application development.]


a primary examine RPG: seems it’s no longer best function-taking part in games | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

lots of you've got heard about one of the most oldest programming languages, COBOL, and you have also heard that COBOL programmers are a good deal asked for this present day to hold ancient legacy code. There’s one more old-timer which few learn about and which continues to be in use and may be in use for rather a while for functions in quite a lot of certain fields (i.e. finance, banking, etc.). Its name is IBM RPG.

once upon a time…

RPG is a high-degree programming language for business purposes. it's an IBM proprietary programming language and its later types are available best on IBM i- or OS/four hundred-based methods.

RPG has been round for more than half a century. via the conclusion of the 1950s, IBM had developed an enormous variety of electromechanical devices called tabulating machines. The remaining industrially produced tabulator mannequin became the IBM 407 Accounting computing device:

determine 1. IBM 407 at U.S. military’s Redstone Arsenal, 1961

by the way, this tabulator rented from $800 to $920 monthly ($8100 to $9300 monthly in 2016 dollars), depending on the mannequin. They were withdrawn from advertising and marketing on December 17, 1976.

As you understand, scientific and technological growth became striding ahead on the time, and the conclusion of the Fifties noticed the start of the first transistor computer systems. the first IBM computing device of this type changed into IBM 1401 built in 1959:

determine 2. IBM 1401 at the Endicott background and Heritage middle

The laptop heritage Museum has one working unit. Take a glance at how it all worked — that’s truly unique (I particularly just like the phrase “We want a bit bit of cooling” at four:41):

To facilitate ease of transition for his or her consumers to the new transistor computer systems, IBM developed two tools in 1959 to duplicate punched-card processing on computer systems: FARGO (Fourteen-o-one computerized record generation Operation) and RPG (document software Generator). each languages’ syntax resembled that of the guideline language of electromechanical tabulators. FARGO and RPG additionally replicated a vital feature of tabulators: cyclic processing mode (regularly occurring because the software cycle), in which tabulators examine punched playing cards, summarized their contents, and printed a effect. IBM nevertheless continues backward compatibility with the application cycle even within the latest dialect, RPG IV.

although RPG become developed below a lot have an impact on of FARGO, it took RPG just a few years to replace its predecessor as a extra advanced language. The subsequent device to obtain RPG guide was mainframe IBM gadget/360 model 20:

figure 3. IBM device/360 model 20 at the Deutsches Museum

a couple of years later (at the conclusion of the 1960s), IBM released the next dialect, RPG II, for midrange desktop equipment/3:

figure 4. Midrange computer IBM equipment/three mannequin 10 and the operator at work

RPG has since evolved into an HLL similar to COBOL and PL/I. Its distinctive feature (in contrast to contemporary languages) was the so called fastened-structure syntax, so programs had been complicated to examine devoid of a special debugging template.

An RPG application as soon as usually began off with File requisites, listing all information being written to, examine from, or up to date, followed with the aid of facts Definition Specificationscontaining software features such as information structures and dimensional arrays, a whole lot like a “Working-Storage” element of a COBOL application or “var” statements in Pascal. A variable is described with a set-layout Definition Specification. in the Definition Specification, denoted with the aid of a letter D in column 6 of a source line, the information class personality (see the table under) can be encoded in column 40. also, if the facts category character is overlooked, that is, left blank, the default will be A if no decimal positions are unique. in any other case, the default could be P.

extra the Calculation standards were given, which might be the checklist of instructions for execution. Output requisites might additionally follow, they decided the design of other data or experiences.

here is the description of all the specifications forms:

  • The U or Auto file spec is simply required for Auto record courses.
  • The H or Header spec is at the suitable of the program and describes compiler options comparable to maximum bring together size, even if the application is an MRT (varied Requestor Terminal) application, and what type of list is generated when the software is compiled. the thing identify of the program created is observed in columns seventy five–80; if a source does not have an H spec, the identify RPGOBJ is used.
  • The F or File spec(s) are subsequent, and describes the files used within the program. files may be disk data (DISK) or can be contraptions reminiscent of a printer (PRINTER), the laptop (WORKSTN), keyboard (KEYBORD), unformatted screen (CRT or monitor), or person-defined (particular). record dimension, block dimension, overflow indicators, and exterior indicators are described. it is viable that an RPG application will now not use any F specs.
  • The E or Extension spec(s) are next, and describe arrays and tables, which may well be prefetched from disk files (an enter desk), drawn from constants positioned on the conclusion of the source between ** and /* symbols, or constructed from calculations.
  • The L or Line Counter spec(s) are next, and if present, describe the form to be printed. It defines the variety of traces in a page and the positions the place printing begins and ends.
  • The I or input specs are subsequent, and describe the facts areas inside information. RPG II allows redefinition of statistics areas in order that a container named FLDA may occupy the identical area as an array AR that includes 8 aspects of 1 persona each. Non-record areas such as data buildings will also be described. reckoning on the values of the input record, warning signs could be conditioned.
  • The C or Calculation spec(s) are subsequent. total fields can be described and accumulated. complicated computations and string manipulations are feasible. indications may well be conditioned.
  • The final specification(s) are O or Output specifications, which describe the output list in terms of fields and output positions.
  • Now, here’s a small example that you can observe studying RPG courses (F and D necessities are neglected):

    * Asterisk (*) in column 7 defines a remark line * In column 6, you write a character denoting* the specification classification for use. The type of specification* defines what the supply line does (i.e. definitions section,* calculations area, etc.).* "C" spec (calculation) describes calculations to be finished.C HOURS IFLE 40C HOURS MULT fee PAYC ELSEC cost MULT forty PAY 72C HOURS SUB forty OTIME 30C fee MULT 1.5 OTRATE 94C OTRATE MULT OTIME OTPAY 72C ADD OTPAY PAYC end

    This code looks complicated, doesn’t it? And that’s simply an easy payroll tax calculation for an hourly worker (personnel get time and a half for hour worked beyond the primary forty).

    In 1978, IBM brought midrange desktop gadget/38 and a new RPG dialect, RPG III, for it:

    figure 6. Midrange desktop IBM system/38

    From that moment on, IBM turned into regularly abolishing the barriers of the language; programmers had been allowed to write specifications in free kind:

    /free If Hours <= forty; Pay = Hours * rate; Else; Pay = (40 * cost) + ((Hours — 40) * (rate * 1.5)); EndIf; /conclusion-free

    at last, the final version, RPG IV (aka RPGLE, ILE RPG), changed into released in 1994. Its three well-known elements are built-in capabilities, techniques, and free-form programming. until November 2013, the free structure applied completely to the calculation necessities. With the V7R1 TR7 upgrade to the language, the “/free” and “/conclusion-free” calculations are not any longer imperative, and the language has eventually broken the ties to punched playing cards.

    I additionally suggest looking at this doc the place IBM demonstrates the drastic changes made to the language. RPG continues to be a popular programming language on the IBM i operating equipment, which runs on IBM power i platform hardware:

    figure 7. IBM vigour i server collection

    All in all, the RPG programming language has been used on 1401, /360, /three, /32, /34, /36, /38 AS/four hundred and gadget i systems. There have also been implementations for the Digital VAX, Sperry Univac BC/7, Univac equipment 80, Siemens BS2000, Burroughs B700, B1700, Hewlett Packard HP3000, ICL 2900 sequence, Honeywell 6220 and 2020, four-section IV/70 and IV/ninety series, Singer device 10 and WANG VS, as well as miscellaneous compilers and runtime environments for Unix-based mostly techniques, comparable to Infinite36 (formerly Unibol 36), and PCs (baby/400, Lattice-RPG).

    these days, RPG IV is a better language. modifying can still be carried out via SEU, the simple eco-friendly-monitor editor:

    figure eight. eco-friendly-screen editor

    although, an extended progression of equipment has been developed over time. Some of those have blanketed visible Age for RPG, which turned into developed with the aid of IBM and promoted through Jon Paris and others. at present the favorite editing platform is IBM’s Websphere building Studio client, now named RDi (Rational Developer for i), which is a personalized implementation of Eclipse:

    figure 9. Rational Developer for i

    there's additionally an RPG compiler for Microsoft .net. This edition incorporates extensions to RPG IV past that of the bottom IBM compiler. These extensions give Microsoft home windows and .internet hooks within the Native and equipment 36 atmosphere, as well because the skill to port DB/2 info to Microsoft entry and Microsoft SQL Server databases by the use of ODBC.

    Conclusion

    youngsters RPG is quite an exotic language, it is a indisputable fact that there exists a big amount of code written in it in certain fields akin to finance, banking, and so forth. The language is fairly different: it contains four dialects and supports both mounted- and free-form programming. The deserve to retain old legacy code and write new code drive organizations to are seeking for RPG builders, who appear to be on the pink list for threatened species. Given the circumstances, additional code-quality handle equipment reminiscent of static analyzers are tons called for.

    You need to have already guessed what the explanation for writing this article is and what we are riding at. You’re appropriate: we are now due to the fact that the concept of creating a static code analyzer for the RPG language. I consider such an analyzer can be a fine assist to people that nonetheless preserve and develop RPG programs. however we haven’t come to a decision yet. obviously, it’s somewhat a particular niche.

    That’s why we want you to inform us if you desire PVS-Studio analyzer to become a tool that might discover bugs in RPG classes. dear potential users of PVS-Studio RPG, we are seeking for you. Don’t hesitate to electronic mail us!


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    AS/400 RPG IV Programmer

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    Utility Advances RPG Conversion | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Utility Advances RPG Conversion

    As the AS/400 continues along the path of becoming an increasingly complex and interactive system, the development languages that pave the way are required to progress in order to accommodate this complexity. One concrete example of this progression is the transformation of RPG III and RPG/400 to ILE RPG, also known as RPG IV.

    Recognizing the difficulty inherent in performing a language transformation, while also providing incentive for such a move, Linoma Software now offers its CVTILERPG conversion utility. CVTILERPG is designed to build upon the existing Integrated Language Environment (ILE) RPG compiler and provide a number of features not available with IBM's basic RPG conversion tool.

    "Some people are just waiting for the right tool to help them convert to RPG IV," says Jeff Petermann, director of sales for Linoma Software, an Omaha, Neb.-based division of Connections 2000 Inc. "CVTILERPG is a conversion utility that goes beyond the AS/400's conversion command, which doesn't truly convert code to RPG IV format but instead allows code to function in an RPG IV world. Programmers then have to go back in and update the code manually at a later time."

    While a move to RPG IV can provide a number of benefits, it is a daunting transition for companies with large quantities of RPG III legacy code that must be converted, says Bob Luebbe, president of Linoma Software and author of CVTILERPG. Luebbe also points out, however, that users want to stay current with new versions of their programming language. "In continuing to stay with RPG, they're going to continue to fall behind, as IBM continues to enhance RPG IV."

    RPG IV also eliminates many of RPG III's limitations, according to Luebbe. "You used to only be able to have 50 files in an RPG III program," he says. "With RPG IV, the programmer can allow for an unlimited number of files--which can include customer files, order entry files, plus an unlimited number of other files where data is stored. In RPG III, there are also limitations on the lengths of field names. Used to be only six character field names in RPG III. RPG IV continues to allow larger field names all the time."

    Migration to RPG IV also becomes a practical matter as the current millennium draws to a close. "RPG IV is a great language to convert to for Y2K conversions, because the language allows for better date and time manipulation than RPG III," Luebbe says. "What may have taken 100 lines of code to do in RPG III, you can now do in maybe one line with RPG IV. We've sold our product to a lot of folks doing Y2K conversion because they want to take advantage of the date and time manipulation features."

    Despite the prevalence of visual languages and Java's increasing popularity, Luebbe indicates there is still a strong demand for RPG. "Most people have pretty much made up their mind to migrate from RPG III to RPG IV, rather than skip from RPG to a newer language like Java," he says. "For one, the learning curve is much shorter."

    One analyst who agrees with Luebbe's assessment of RPG's health is James Sinur, VP and research director for application development with Gartner Group (Stamford, Conn.). "RPG is a perfectly structured language that doesn't require a sophisticated parser," he says, adding, "It's the perfect language for moving from one version to another."

    According to Sinur, programmers must consider several aspects when performing code conversion. The first is to "make sure you have a good test bed, because you need a benchmark," he says. "It's the only way to determine whether you've had a successful conversion." In addition, reference sites must be checked to make sure the new code works. Developers should also "do a pilot with one of the dirtiest pieces of code you've got," he adds.

    The latest version of CVTILERPG, 1.42, is designed to take advantage of all ILE RPG IV features when converting RPG III and RPG/400 source code, according to Luebbe. Standard features always performed by CVTILERPG include conversion of: IFxx, DOxx, WHxx, ANDxx and ORxx operations to use the free form expression area; SETON, SETOF and COMP operations to the EVAL operation; END operations to their corresponding ENDxx operations (i.e. END becomes ENDIF); and the constant of '1' to *ON and '0' to *OFF in indicator operations. The utility also generates a summary report of converted member(s), with any exception messages.

    There are a number of optional features than can be turned on or off during the conversion process. "Our product lets you control how many of the new RPG IV features you want to take advantage of," Luebbe says. Programmers can later update code that has already been converted.

    Though Gartner's Sinur says his client base does not like dealing with invasive procedures like language-to-language conversions, he agrees that RPG is "much more simplistic than parsing C, C++, Java, Assembler and even Cobol." Sinur adds that Cobol to Cobol is the most common form of code conversion, and that conversion of Cobol to Java has taken off as of late. "Even more common than language-to-language conversion is GUI-wrapping," he says, as his clients "like approaches that don't tweak the code much."


    A first look at RPG: turns out it’s not only Role-Playing Games | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Many of you have heard about one of the oldest programming languages, COBOL, and you have also heard that COBOL programmers are much asked for nowadays to maintain old legacy code. There’s another old-timer which few know about and which is still in use and will be in use for quite a while for applications in various specific fields (i.e. finance, banking, etc.). Its name is IBM RPG.

    Once upon a time…

    RPG is a high-level programming language for business applications. It is an IBM proprietary programming language and its later versions are available only on IBM i- or OS/400-based systems.

    RPG has been around for more than half a century. By the end of the 1950s, IBM had built a huge number of electromechanical devices called tabulating machines. The last mass-produced tabulator model was the IBM 407 Accounting Machine:

    Figure 1. IBM 407 at U.S. Army’s Redstone Arsenal, 1961

    By the way, this tabulator rented from $800 to $920 per month ($8100 to $9300 per month in 2016 dollars), depending on the model. They were withdrawn from marketing on December 17, 1976.

    As you know, scientific and technological progress was striding forward at the time, and the end of the 1950s saw the birth of the first transistor computers. The first IBM computer of this type was IBM 1401 built in 1959:

    Figure 2. IBM 1401 at the Endicott History and Heritage Center

    The Computer History Museum has one working unit. Take a look at how it all worked — that’s really interesting (I especially like the phrase “We need a little bit of cooling” at 4:41):

    To facilitate ease of transition for their customers to the new transistor computers, IBM developed two tools in 1959 to replicate punched-card processing on computers: FARGO (Fourteen-o-one Automatic Report Generation Operation) and RPG (Report Program Generator). Both languages’ syntax resembled that of the instruction language of electromechanical tabulators. FARGO and RPG also replicated an important feature of tabulators: cyclic processing mode (known as the program cycle), in which tabulators read punched cards, summarized their contents, and printed a result. IBM still maintains backward compatibility with the program cycle even in the latest dialect, RPG IV.

    Even though RPG was developed under much influence of FARGO, it took RPG just a few years to replace its predecessor as a more superior language. The next system to receive RPG support was mainframe IBM System/360 Model 20:

    Figure 3. IBM System/360 Model 20 at the Deutsches Museum

    A couple of years later (at the end of the 1960s), IBM released the next dialect, RPG II, for midrange computer System/3:

    Figure 4. Midrange computer IBM System/3 Model 10 and the operator at work

    RPG has since evolved into an HLL equivalent to COBOL and PL/I. Its distinctive feature (in contrast to modern languages) was the so called fixed-format syntax, so programs were difficult to read without a special debugging template.

    An RPG program once typically started off with File Specifications, listing all files being written to, read from, or updated, followed by Data Definition Specificationscontaining program elements such as Data Structures and dimensional arrays, much like a “Working-Storage” section of a COBOL program or “var” statements in Pascal. A variable is defined with a fixed-format Definition Specification. In the Definition Specification, denoted by a letter D in column 6 of a source line, the data type character (see the table below) would be encoded in column 40. Also, if the data type character is omitted, that is, left blank, the default will be A if no decimal positions are specified. Otherwise, the default will be P.

    Further the Calculation Specifications were given, which are the list of commands for execution. Output Specifications could also follow, they determined the layout of other files or reports.

    The following is the description of all the specifications types:

  • The U or Auto Report spec is only required for Auto Report programs.
  • The H or Header spec is at the top of the program and describes compiler options such as maximum compile size, whether the program is an MRT (Multiple Requestor Terminal) program, and what type of listing is generated when the program is compiled. The object name of the program created is located in columns 75–80; if a source does not have an H spec, the name RPGOBJ is used.
  • The F or File spec(s) are next, and describes the files used in the program. Files may be disk files (DISK) or may be devices such as a printer (PRINTER), the workstation (WORKSTN), keyboard (KEYBORD), unformatted display (CRT or DISPLAY), or user-defined (SPECIAL). Record size, block size, overflow indicators, and external indicators are described. It is possible that an RPG program will not use any F specs.
  • The E or Extension spec(s) are next, and describe arrays and tables, which may be prefetched from disk files (an Input table), drawn from constants placed at the end of the source between ** and /* symbols, or built from calculations.
  • The L or Line Counter spec(s) are next, and if present, describe the form to be printed. It defines the number of lines in a page and the positions where printing begins and ends.
  • The I or Input specs are next, and describe the data areas within files. RPG II permits redefinition of data areas so that a field named FLDA might occupy the same area as an array AR that contains 8 elements of 1 character each. Non-record areas such as data structures can be described. Depending on the values of the input record, indicators may be conditioned.
  • The C or Calculation spec(s) are next. Total fields may be described and accumulated. Complex computations and string manipulations are possible. Indicators may be conditioned.
  • The last specification(s) are O or Output specifications, which describe the output record in terms of fields and output positions.
  • Now, here’s a small example for you to practice reading RPG programs (F and D specifications are omitted):

    * Asterisk (*) in column 7 defines a comment line * In column 6, you write a character denoting* the specification type to be used. The type of specification* defines what the source line does (i.e. definitions section,* calculations section, etc.).* "C" spec (calculation) describes calculations to be done.C HOURS IFLE 40C HOURS MULT RATE PAYC ELSEC RATE MULT 40 PAY 72C HOURS SUB 40 OTIME 30C RATE MULT 1.5 OTRATE 94C OTRATE MULT OTIME OTPAY 72C ADD OTPAY PAYC END

    This code looks complicated, doesn’t it? And that’s just a simple payroll tax calculation for an hourly employee (employees get time and a half for hour worked beyond the first 40).

    In 1978, IBM introduced midrange computer System/38 and a new RPG dialect, RPG III, for it:

    Figure 6. Midrange computer IBM System/38

    From that moment on, IBM was gradually abolishing the limitations of the language; programmers were allowed to write specifications in free form:

    /free If Hours <= 40; Pay = Hours * Rate; Else; Pay = (40 * Rate) + ((Hours — 40) * (Rate * 1.5)); EndIf; /end-free

    Finally, the last version, RPG IV (aka RPGLE, ILE RPG), was released in 1994. Its three prominent features are built-in functions, procedures, and free-form programming. Until November 2013, the free format applied exclusively to the calculation specifications. With the V7R1 TR7 upgrade to the language, the “/free” and “/end-free” calculations are no longer necessary, and the language has finally broken the ties to punched cards.

    I also recommend looking at this document where IBM demonstrates the drastic changes made to the language. RPG remains a popular programming language on the IBM i operating system, which runs on IBM Power i platform hardware:

    Figure 7. IBM Power i server series

    All in all, the RPG programming language has been used on 1401, /360, /3, /32, /34, /36, /38 AS/400 and System i systems. There have also been implementations for the Digital VAX, Sperry Univac BC/7, Univac system 80, Siemens BS2000, Burroughs B700, B1700, Hewlett Packard HP3000, ICL 2900 series, Honeywell 6220 and 2020, Four-Phase IV/70 and IV/90 series, Singer System 10 and WANG VS, as well as miscellaneous compilers and runtime environments for Unix-based systems, such as Infinite36 (formerly Unibol 36), and PCs (Baby/400, Lattice-RPG).

    Today, RPG IV is a more robust language. Editing can still be done via SEU, the simple green-screen editor:

    Figure 8. Green-screen editor

    However, a long progression of tools has been developed over time. Some of these have included Visual Age for RPG, which was developed by IBM and promoted by Jon Paris and others. Currently the preferred editing platform is IBM’s Websphere Development Studio client, now named RDi (Rational Developer for i), which is a customized implementation of Eclipse:

    Figure 9. Rational Developer for i

    There is also an RPG compiler for Microsoft .NET. This version contains extensions to RPG IV beyond that of the base IBM compiler. These extensions provide Microsoft Windows and .NET hooks in the Native and System 36 environment, as well as the ability to port DB/2 files to Microsoft Access and Microsoft SQL Server databases via ODBC.

    Conclusion

    Although RPG is quite an exotic language, it is a fact that there exists a large amount of code written in it in specific fields such as finance, banking, and the like. The language is quite diverse: it includes 4 dialects and supports both fixed- and free-form programming. The need to maintain old legacy code and write new code force companies to seek RPG developers, who seem to be on the Red List for threatened species. Given the circumstances, additional code-quality control tools such as static analyzers are much called for.

    You must have already guessed what the reason for writing this article is and what we are driving at. You’re right: we are now considering the idea of creating a static code analyzer for the RPG language. I believe such an analyzer would be a great aid to those who still maintain and develop RPG programs. But we haven’t come to a decision yet. Needless to say, it’s quite a specific niche.

    That’s why we need you to tell us if you want PVS-Studio analyzer to become a tool that could detect bugs in RPG programs. Dear potential users of PVS-Studio RPG, we are looking for you. Don’t hesitate to email us!


    Settling In With IBM i For The Long Haul | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    February 11, 2019 Timothy Prickett Morgan

    If nothing else, the IBM i platform has exhibited extraordinary longevity. One might even say legendary longevity, if you want to take its history all the way back to the System/3 minicomputer from 1969. This is the real starting point in the AS/400 family tree and this is when Big Blue, for very sound legal and technical and marketing reasons, decided to fork its products to address the unique needs of large enterprises (with the System/360 mainframe and its follow-ons) and small and medium businesses (starting with the System/3 and moving on through the System/34, System/32, System/38, and System/36 in the 1970s and early 1980s and passing through the AS/400, AS/400e, iSeries, System i, and then IBM i on Power Systems platforms.

    It has been a long run indeed, and many customers who have invested in the platform started way back then and there with the early versions of RPG and moved their applications forward and changed them as their businesses evolved and the depth and breadth of corporate computing changed, moving on up through RPG II, RPG III, RPG IV, ILE RPG, and now RPG free form. Being on this platform for even three decades makes you a relative newcomer.

    There is a longer run ahead, since we believe that the companies that are still running IBM i systems are the true diehards, the ones who have no intention of leaving the platform and that, at least according to the survey data we have been privy too, are intending to continue investing in, or even expand their investments in, the IBM i platform.

    Thus far, we are not in a recession and heaven willing there will not be one, so the priorities that IBM i shops have are not the ones that they had a decade ago during the height of the Great Recession. Back then, as was the case in just about all IT organizations, IBM i shops were hunkering down and were trying to cut costs in all ways possible, including deferring system upgrades and migrations as well as cutting back on other projects. Only 29 percent of the 750 IBM i shops that participated in the 2019 IBM i Marketplace Survey, which HelpSystems did back in October 2018, were concerned about reducing IT spending. This is a remarkably low level, and I think is indicative of how relatively strong the economy is – excepting some of the fits and starts we saw at the end of 2018 and here in early 2019 that make us nervous and could start putting pressure on things. Here are the top concerns as culled from the survey:

    Dealing with the growth in data and in figuring out the analytics to chew on that data ranked a little bit higher on the 2019 IBM i Marketplace Survey than did reducing costs, and I think over the long haul these issues will become more important than modernizing applications and dealing with the IBM i skills shortages that are a perennial worry. Both of these issues are being solved as new programmers and new tools to make new interfaces to database applications are becoming more common and as technologies such as free form RPG, which looks more like Java, Python, and PHP, are being more widely deployed and, importantly, can be picked up more quickly by programmers experienced with these other languages.

    Given the nature of the customer base, it seems unlikely to me that security and high availability will not continue to be primary concerns, despite the fact that the IBM i platform is among the most secure platforms on the planet (and not just because it is obscure, but because it is exceedingly difficult to hack) and it has a range of high availability and disaster recovery tools (from IBM, Syncsort, Maxava, and HelpSystems) available for those who want to double up their systems and protect their applications and data. The bar is often higher than simple backup and recovery for many IBM i shops in the banking, insurance, manufacturing, and distribution industries that dominate the platform. These companies can’t have security breaches, and they can’t have downtime.

    There is a remarkable amount of stability in the IBM i customer base that we think, at this point, is reflective in the stability of the IBM i platform and Big Blue’s own belief that it needs a healthy IBM i platform to have an overall healthy Power Systems business. We all know that the Power Systems hardware business has just turned in five quarters of revenue growth – something we discussed recently in developing our own revenue model for the Power Systems business – but what we did not know, and what you should know, is that in the second and third quarters of 2018, the IBM i portion of the business grew significantly faster than the overall Power Systems business, and the only reason that this did not happen in the final quarter of 2018 is that sales of IBM i machinery in Q4 2017 was quite strong and represented a very tough compare. The point is, the IBM i business has been raising the Power Systems class average. (These hints about the IBM i business come compliments of Steve Sibley, vice president and offering manager of Cognitive Systems at IBM.)

    IBM’s own financial stability of the Power platform – which has been bolstered by a move into Linux clusters for analytics and high performance computing simulation and modeling as well as by the adoption of the HANA in-memory database by SAP customers on big iron machines including Power8 and now Power9 systems – helps IBM i customers feel more confident in investing in the current IBM i platform. The recent evidence from several different surveys, not just the one done by HelpSystems every year, suggests that companies are by and large either continuing to invest in the platform or even in some cases are planning to increase their spending on the IBM i platform in 2019.

    As you can see, the pattern of investment plans for the IBM i platform, as shown in the chart above, has not changed very much at all in the past four years. It is a remarkably stable pattern with but a little wiggling here and there that may not even be statistically significant. Just under a quarter of IBM i shops have reported in the past four years that they plan to increase their investment in the platform in each year, and just under half say that they are holding steady. This does not mean that the same companies, year after year, are investing more and other companies are staying pat, year after year. It is far more likely that every handful of years – more like four or five – customers upgrade their systems and expand their capacity, and they then sit tight. The wonder is that the split isn’t showing far fewer companies investing and far more sitting tight. That more than a tenth of the shops don’t know what their plan is as each prior year comes to a close is a bit disturbing, but it is honest and shows that a significant portion of shops have other priorities aside from hardware and operating system upgrades. We have said this before and we will say it again: We think that the people who respond to surveys and read weekly publications focused on the IBM i platform are the most active shops – the ones more likely to stay relatively current on hardware and software. So the pace of adoption for new technologies, and the rate of investment, should be higher than in the actual base, much of which does not change much at all.

    So if we had to adjust this data to take on the whole base, there might be far fewer sites that are investing more money, far more companies that are sitting tight, and maybe fewer sites that are contemplating moving off the IBM i platform. I think the distribution of data is probably something like 10 percent of shops have no idea what they are doing investment wise with IBM this year, 5 percent are thinking about moving some or all of their applications to another platform, maybe 10 percent are investing more this year, and the remaining 75 percent are sitting tight. This is just a guess, of course. As far as we can tell, the rate of attrition – how many sites we actually lose each year – just a tad over 1 percent. So the rate of movement of applications off the platform, or incidences of unplugging IBM i databases and applications, may not be anywhere near as high in the overall base as the data above suggests. What is alarming, perhaps, is that the rate of moving some or all applications off the platform is balanced against those who say they will increase investments. Perhaps these are hopeful survey takers, and those who think it is easy to move find it is not and those who think they will find the money to invest will not.

    What we do know is that if the rate of application attrition was anywhere near as high as these surveys suggest, then the IBM i business would not be growing, but shrinking. And we know it is not shrinking, so we think there is a disconnect between planning and reality, both on the upside and the downside.

    If you drill down into the data for the 2019 IBM i Marketplace Survey, there were 13 percent of shops that said they would be moving some applications to a new platform, and another 9 percent that said they were going to move all of their applications off IBM i. (This number is consistent with the recent ALL400s survey done by John Rockwell.)

    Anyway, good luck with that.

    Porting applications from one platform to another, of buying a new suite on that new platform, is an exceedingly difficult task. It is not like trying to change a tire while driving down the road, as is a common metaphor, but rather like trying to take the tire off one car moving down the highway and installing it on another car driving beside it in the adjacent lane without crashing either car or smashing into anyone else on the road. Optimism abounds, but when push comes to shove, very few companies try such a maneuver, and when they do, it is usually because there is a corporate mandate, more times than not caused by a merger or acquisition, that pits some other platform against IBM i running on Power Systems. Companies that say they are making such a move off IBM i are sanguine for their own personal reasons, perhaps, but they are not necessarily realistic about how long it might take, what disruption it will cost, and what ultimate benefit, if any, will be realized.

    If you do the math on the chart above, eight-tenths of the base has no idea how long a move will take, another 1.7 percent thinks it will take more than five years, and 3 percent say it will take between two years and five years. Only 3.4 percent of the total base say they can do it in under two years. We think all of these numbers are optimistic, and the companies who could easily leave OS/400 and IBM i already did a long time ago and those that are remain have a harder time, not an easier time, moving. If this were not true, the IBM i base would be a hell of a lot smaller than the 120,000 customers we think are out there, based on what Big Blue has told us in the past. This is the difference between fear or pressure or culture and the reality of trying to move a business off one platform and onto another. These moves are always a lot harder than they seem on the front end, and we suspect many of the benefits also don’t materialize for those who do jump platforms.

    At the average attrition rate suggested by this survey data – 9 percent move off the platform in somewhere between one year and more than five years, with most companies not being able to see more than five years into the future that is a neat trick – the installed base would shrink dramatically. It is tough to say how far because of the wide range of timeframes in the survey. If it was 9 percent of the base within two years – call it 4.5 percent of the base per year – then within a decade the overall base would shrink from 120,000 IBM i sites worldwide down to about 72,000. This would dramatic indeed. But at a 1 percent attrition rate per year, the base is still at 107,500 unique customers (not sites and not installed machines, both of which are larger) by 2029. We think there is every chance that the attrition rate will actually slow and drop underneath 1 percent as IBM demonstrates commitment to the Power Systems platform and its IBM i operating system. There are always some new customers being added in new markets, to be sure, but the bleed rate (even if it is small) is still probably an order of magnitude larger than the feed rate.

    When they do think about making the move, IBM i shops know exactly where they want to go, and this answer has been gradually changing over the years: Linux as an alternative to IBM i is on the rise and Windows Server as an alternative is on the wane. In the latest survey, 52 percent of the companies that said they were moving all or some of their applications to another platform said they were choosing Windows Server, while 34 percent chose Linux. This reflects the relative popularity of Windows Server and Linux in the datacenters of the world at large, and may be tipped just a little more heavily towards Linux compared to the rest of the world. Interestingly, 10 percent of those polled who said they were moving were looking at AIX platforms, and another 4 percent were going upscale to System z mainframes – as unlikely as this may seem. Platforms tend to roll downhill; they do not usually defy gravity like that.

    The thing about such surveys is that they show intent, not action. We often intend to do a lot more than we actually can accomplish, and moving platforms after spending decades of building up expertise is not usually a very smart move unless the platform is in real trouble – like the Itanium systems from Hewlett Packard Enterprise running OpenVMS or HP-UX or the HP 3000s running MPE or the Sparc systems from Oracle running Solaris. These were once great platforms with huge installed bases and tremendous revenue streams, but now, IBM is the last of these Unix and proprietary platforms with its Power Systems line. And it is by far the biggest and for sure the only one showing any growth.

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